Multiple pregnancies are a
major health issue involving significantly greater health risks for both
mothers and babies and much higher medical costs, compared to pregnancies
involving only one baby, a new study finds.
Researchers looked at data
on nearly 438 000 births by US women aged 19 to 45, between January 2005 and
September 2010. Of those births, 97% were single babies, about 2.85% were
twins, and 0.13% were triplets or more, according to the study appearing in the
American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology.
Average health care costs
were over $400 000 for triplets or more, $105 000 for twins and $21 000 for
singletons. That means that the costs for triplets or more were 20 times higher
than for singletons. The costs included medical expenses during the 27 weeks
before and up to 30 days after delivery, said lead investigator Dongmu Zhang,
with global health outcomes for Merck & Co. and colleagues.
For singleton pregnancies,
maternal-related expenses accounted for 60% of overall medical costs. On the
other hand, for pregnancies involving twins or triplets and more,
infant-related expenses accounted for 70% and 85% of all medical costs,
respectively, Zhang explained in a journal news release.
Assisted reproductive technologies
Women with twins or more
were much more likely to have co-existing health conditions than those with
singletons, the study authors noted. Mothers with twins or triplets or more
also had longer hospital stays for delivery and a higher death rate (although
the overall risk of death was small).
Multiple pregnancies are
increasing worldwide due to increased use of assisted reproductive technologies
such as in vitro fertilisation (IVF), the news release noted.
For women undergoing IVF,
the risk of multiple pregnancies is mostly due to multiple embryo transfer.
Strategies meant to minimise multiple embryo transfer should be considered to
reduce the extra costs and risks associated with multiple pregnancies, Zhang
and colleagues concluded.
3% of all infants born in
the United States in 2010 were multiple deliveries. The birth rates for twins
was 33 per 1 000 total births, and for triplets and more, the rate was 1.4 per
1 000 births, according to the US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention.
The March of Dimes has more
about multiple pregnancy.