College-age drinkers who mix caffeine and
alcohol are more likely to make risky decisions and require medical care,
research has shown.
A new study suggests younger drinkers often
combine caffeine and alcohol as well. "Although there have been several
articles about alcohol and caffeine use among college students little was known
about this phenomenon among younger adolescents," Dr Michael Siegel told
Reuters Health in an email.
He worked on the study at the Boston
University School of Public Health. Siegel and his colleagues analysed information
from internet surveys of 1 031 youths aged 13 to 20 who'd had at
least one alcoholic drink in the past month.
The surveys asked participants whether they
consumed energy drinks that contained alcohol and if they mixed caffeine and
alcoholic drinks on their own.
The researchers considered traditional
caffeinated alcoholic beverages to be alcohol mixed with soda, coffee and tea.
Non-traditional beverages were pre-mixed alcoholic energy drinks and alcohol
mixed with energy drinks or shots.
More common among underage drinkers
"Most of the previous studies have
focused on the combination of energy drinks and alcohol, but have not studied
more traditional combinations such as alcohol and soda," Siegel said.
Just over half of the participants reported
drinking caffeine and alcohol together in the previous month.
Than included 48% of 13- to 15-year-old
drinkers, 45% of 16- to 18-year-olds and 58% of 19- and 20-year-olds. More teens
drank traditional caffeinated alcoholic beverages than non-traditional
beverages – 46% compared to 20%.
The researchers found teens who had started
drinking between age 11 and 13 were more likely to report recently drinking
caffeinated alcoholic beverages than those who started later.
The findings suggest mixing caffeine and
alcohol is more common among underage drinkers and starts at a much earlier age
than previously thought, Siegel and his team wrote in the journal Addictive Behaviours.
They found young people who consumed energy
drinks and shots mixed with alcohol were several times more likely to binge
drink, get in fights and sustain alcohol-related injuries than those who did
The same link existed among those who mixed
alcohol with soda, coffee and tea, but to a lesser extent. "This may be due
to the fact that energy drinks provide more caffeine than soda or coffee.
There appears to be a gradation of effect,
with higher amounts of caffeine associated with even higher risks of adverse
outcomes," Siegel said.
Literally and culturally edgy
"Ultimately what's probably happening
is that kids who are driven to seek out new experiences push the limits in
various ways. Energy drinks fit into that," Aaron White told Reuters
He is with the Division of Epidemiology and
Prevention Research at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
and was not involved in the new study. "Energy drinks are a way to be edgy,
literally and culturally edgy, and a way to take some chances," White
Mixing alcohol and caffeine can mask some
of the feelings of intoxication, making teens think they can drink
more. "Caffeine can make you feel like you're less intoxicated. It doesn't
reduce your level of intoxication," White said.
Many products containing caffeine and
alcohol such as Four Loko have been taken off the market or reformulated
without caffeine, the researchers noted. But that doesn't seem to be stopping
young people from mixing their own.
"We believe that efforts to educate
youth about the adverse outcomes associated with the consumption of alcohol and
caffeine are warranted," Siegel said. "Parents should be aware that
underage youths are often adding alcohol to non-alcoholic beverages like soda
and energy drinks," he added.
"While the dangers of pre-mixed
beverages containing caffeine and alcohol have received widespread media
attention, we found that the main source of (caffeinated alcoholic beverage)
use among youths is self-mixing of caffeine and alcohol," Siegel said.
"These results should become a part of health education programmes for