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Tuberculosis

Updated 20 June 2018

SA first country to break all barriers to revolutionary TB drug

Cure rates for XDR-TB (extensively drug-resistant TB) patients taking the new drug bedaquiline are as high as 80%.

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South Africa made history on Monday when the health department announced that all drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) patients will be eligible to receive the new medicine, bedaquiline.

“The Department of Health’s [DoH] commitment is momentous globally and marks a new era of DR-TB management where we are really prioritising the patient,” Doctors Without Borders’ Dr Anja Reuter told Health-e News.

Little chance of being cured

Up until recently treating patients with DR-TB has been “difficult, with old medicines used, which had many negative side effects and over long periods – often up to 24 months”, noted the DoH in a press statement.

Even if patients take their full course of toxic medicines they have little chance of being cured and risk long-term disability, including permanent deafness.

In 2012, before bedaquiline, fewer than one in five (19%) South African patients with extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) were cured, according to the DoH’s Dr Norbert Ndjeka.

He said new government data showed that, by 2015, after all XDR-TB patients became eligible for the drug, the portion of patients who completed treatment successfully shot up to 51%.

According to this data, cure rates for XDR-TB patients taking bedaquiline are as high as 80% in some areas.

No more hearing loss

The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends the drug, manufactured by Johnson & Johnson, for all XDR-TB patients, but it does not yet do the same for people with multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB).

MDR-TB is resistant to two of the most common anti-TB drugs and XDR-TB is resistant to four – leaving very few effective drugs available.

For the first time, no patient will have to receive the injectable drugs that cause hearing loss in up to 60% of users, as they will be completely replaced by bedaquiline.

“It will have a huge impact in terms of decreasing disability,” said Reuter. “Deafness for a child, for example, can prevent the development of speech and lead to social isolation and bullying.”

All-access policy

In an open letter to health minister Dr Aaron Motsoaledi local organisation TB Proof wrote, “We are ecstatic that no South African with this terrible disease will have to ‘choose’ between their hearing or their life again.”

And, according to Reuter, the country’s “bold” move may influence the WHO to shift its current “conservative” stance and revise their guidelines in line with our own.

In addition to announcing an all-access policy towards bedaquiline the DoH said that it would be cutting the DR-TB treatment duration to just nine months – in line with new and ongoing research.

“This is an evidence-based decision. This is a person-centred decision. It is visionary and courageous and marks a fundamental shift in how leaders and policy makers engage with people who have TB,” wrote TB Proof. – Health-e News.

Image credit: iStock