The fight against malaria
has saved 3.3 million lives worldwide since 2000 but the mosquito-borne disease
still killed 627 000 people last year, mainly children in Africa, health
authorities said Wednesday.
A shortage of funding and
basic remedies like bed nets mean that malaria is still a major threat,
particularly in Africa and Southeast Asia, according to the World Health
Organisation's Malaria Report 2013.
"The fact that so many
people are infected and dying from mosquito bites is one of the greatest
tragedies of the 21st century," said WHO Director-General Margaret Chan.
A surge in global funding
over the past decade has led to great strides against malaria, but even levels
as high as $2.5 billion in 2012 are still only half what is needed to make sure
everyone at risk of malaria has access to interventions, the WHO report said.
progress is no cause for complacency: absolute numbers of malaria cases and
deaths are not going down as fast as they could," Chan said.
Tangible progress recorded
In 2012, there were an
estimated 207 million cases of malaria, causing some 627 000 deaths.
The Democratic Republic of
Congo and Nigeria are the hardest-hit among about 10 countries where malaria is
a leading killer.
An estimated 3.4 billion
people are at risk of malaria worldwide, with 80% of cases occurring in Africa.
Tangible progress has been
recorded in over half of the 103 countries with ongoing malaria transmission,
with decreases in the incidence rate since 2000, said the WHO report.
Death rates worldwide fell
by 45% between 2000 and 2012 in all age groups, and by 51% in children under
Signs of resistance
The main interventions for
malaria are indoor spraying, diagnostic testing, artemisinin-based combination
drug therapies, and bed nets treated with insecticides.
Malaria parasites are
showing signs of resistance to insecticides in 64 countries.
Another main concern in the
emerging resistance to the anti-malarial medicines' core component artemisinin
in Thailand, Vietnam, Myanmar and Cambodia, the WHO report said.
But despite WHO
recommendations that pills containing artemisinin only be removed from the
market in favour of combination therapies to better protect against emerging
resistance, nine countries – six of them in Africa – continue to make these
Overall, access to
combination drug therapies rose, with 331 million courses delivered in 2012, up
from 76 million in 2006.
The report also raised
concern about "a slowdown in the expansion of interventions to control
mosquitoes for the second successive year," particularly regarding the
distribution of bed nets.
"We went from a peak
of more than 150 million nets distributed in 2010 to much lower numbers in 2011
and 2012," said Robert Newman, head of the WHO's Global Malaria Program.
In 2004, just six million
insecticide-treated nets were delivered annually by manufacturers to
malaria-endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa.
Just 92 million of the 150
million needed annually were delivered by manufacturers in 2011, and only 70
million were delivered in 2012.
"In 2013 we have seen
a strong upsurge... but that has not made up for the couple of years when we
did not get enough bed nets out there," said Newman.
"We know that these
are lifesaving tools," he said, noting that it costs about $12 for a net
that can last three years.
"We can't wind up
being victims of our own success," said Newman.
"If we don't finish
the job, if we don't eliminate malaria in a country, then we know that we can
undo in a couple transmission seasons what 13 years of hard work has