The risk factors for heartburn include:
Weight and obesity
A high body mass index (a BMI of more than 25) and an unhealthy waist circumference (more than 102cm in men and 88cm in women) can affect:
These factors may all contribute to heartburn and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), the condition most often associated with heartburn.
- The pressure inside the stomach and therefore the pressure on the lower oesophageal sphincter
- The amount of bile and pancreatic enzymes produced by the body
- The risk for hiatus hernia
- The gradient of the lower oesophageal sphincter, which helps to keep the stomach contents out of the oesophagus
In one study, 37% of overweight and obese participants had GORD. Worryingly, there’s also a well-documented association between an elevated BMI and oesophageal cancer.
Weight loss can make a significant difference if you’re overweight or obese, and suffer from heartburn.
The more you smoke, or the more you’re exposed to second-hand smoke, the greater your risk for heartburn and GORD. Research shows that tobacco smoke:
The good news is that once you quit smoking, the body’s anti-reflux mechanisms once again start to work as they should.
- Increases stomach acid production
- Reduces the rate at which the stomach empties
- Decreases the pressure on the lower oesophageal sphincter, which allows stomach acid to flow back up into the oesophagus
- Promotes the movement of bile salts from the intestine into the stomach, which makes stomach acid more harmful
- Injures the oesophagus, making it less able to resist damage from stomach acid
Drinking alcohol, especially in large quantities, may increase acid secretion in the stomach, which could increase the volume of reflux into the oesophagus.
The alcohol itself may also damage the delicate lining of the oesophagus. In this way, drinking alcohol may increase the risk for heartburn and, potentially, GORD.
Drinking less alcohol, or no alcohol at all, could be an effective way of controlling heartburn.
If you suffer from heartburn, chances are that one or more of your family members get heartburn, too – your mother, father, brother or sister. Research shows that genetics could up your risk for heartburn and GORD.
A 2002 study of Swedish twins showed that genetically alike identical (monozygotic) twins were twice as likely to share symptoms of GORD as less genetically alike fraternal (dizygotic) twins.
Inherited genes, and not just environmental factors (e.g. similar lifestyle patterns), could therefore play a role in the development of GORD.
Research shows that both women and men experience a similar percentage of heartburn, but that women may experience symptoms more often than men. Women also tend to report more severe symptoms.
The fact that overweight and obesity are more prevalent among women also plays a role. The much-cited American Nurses Health Study, for example, showed that women with a BMI greater than 22.5 experienced more frequent GORD symptoms. This increased to an odds ratio of almost three for those with a BMI greater than 35.
Another factor that increases a woman’s risk for heartburn is pregnancy.
The hormonal changes during pregnancy can lead to the relaxation of the lower oesophageal sphincter, which then leads to more frequent reflux and/or greater volumes of reflux.
Another factor is the increased size of the uterus during pregnancy. As the uterus presses on the stomach, it creates pressure inside of it, which increases the tendency to reflux.
Certain medicines and supplements can cause heartburn. The active ingredients in some relax the lower oesophageal sphincter, causing reflux, while others irritate the oesophagus.
The list of medications that may cause heartburn includes:
Reviewed by Dr Estelle Wilken, senior specialist in Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology at Tygerberg Hospital. March 2017.
- Medication used in the treatment of osteoporosis
- Iron supplements
- Quinidine, used to treat heart-rhythm disorders
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, i.e. painkillers like ibuprofen
- Potassium supplements
- Tricyclic antidepressants, e.g. Tryptanol and Trepiline
- Calcium channel blockers, used to treat high blood pressure, migraines and angina
- Medication that contains codeine, e.g. Myprodol and Adco-Dol
- Sedatives for anxiety or sleeplessness