Hearing management

Updated 06 December 2017

Soccer noise a real threat to hearing

Researchers have produced evidence, based on tests at a soccer match with blaring vuvuzelas, that the sound level inside a 2010 stadium could lead to permanent hearing damage.


Researchers have produced evidence, based on tests at a soccer match with blaring vuvuzelas, that the sound level inside a 2010 stadium could lead to permanent hearing damage.

"The findings of this study demonstrate a real risk of noise-induced hearing loss," they say in an article in the latest edition of the SA Medical Journal.

The study was authored by Dr De Wet Swanepoel of the University of Pretoria's department of communication pathology, and Dr James Hall of a sister department at the University of Florida.

They said they tested the hearing of 11 spectators before and after they attended a Premier Soccer League match at a Fifa-approved training stadium with 30,000 seats.

The study

During the match, ten of the 11 wore personal sound exposure meters fixed to their shoulders, and four of them blew vuvuzelas.

The researchers said the average sound exposure experienced by the participants during the almost two hours they spent in the stadium was 100.5 decibels.

The peak exposure exceeded 140 decibels for eight of the ten participants, with the maximum peak reaching 144.2.

The four who blew vuvuzelas had the most exposure to noise.

85 decibels the standard

Swanepoel and Hall said South African standards for occupational noise required hearing protection for workers exposed to levels of 85 decibels and above.

The decibel scale was logarithmic, implying a doubling of hearing loss risk with every three decibel increase. This meant participants in the stadium study were "exposed to high-intensity sound far exceeding the current legislated average exposure and peak exposure levels for occupational noise".

Tests on the 11 after the match showed a "significant" decrease in hearing sensitivity.

Though the decrease was probably temporary, the changes usually preceded permanent hearing damage.

Hearing protection recommended

Swanepoel and Hall said their findings supported a recommendation for hearing protection for soccer spectators.

"Official match stadiums for the 2010 Fifa World Cup will house 90,000 spectators, three times more than the stadium used in this study.

"It is reasonable to suspect that sound intensity will be even higher in the larger official venues."

Though they could not pinpoint the vuvuzela's contribution to the overall sound level, the instrument was certainly "a major factor".

Permanent hearing loss

In a previous study, also published in the SA Medical Journal, they reported on tests conducted at the university that showed exposure to vuvuzela noise for more than a few minutes put people at risk of hearing loss.

A South African company is marketing foam earplugs specially designed for the World Cup. - (Sapa, April 2010)


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Hearing Expert

Dr Kara Hoffman graduated from UCT in 2004, thereafter she completed her year of community service in Durban. In 2010 she completed her Masters Degree in Paediatric Aural Rehabilitation from UKZN. In 2016, she became a Doctor of Audiology through the University of Arizona (ATSU). Dr Hoffman and her partner Lauren Thompson opened a fully diagnostic audiology practice called Thompson & Hoffman Audiology Inc. In 2011 with world-class technology and equipment to be able to offer the broad public all hearing-related services including hearing testing for adults and babies, vestibular (balance) assessments and rehabilitation, industrial audiology, hearing devices, central auditory processing assessments for school-aged children, school screening, neonatal hearing screening programmes at Alberlito and Parklands Hospital, cochlear implants and other implantable devices, medicolegal assessments and advanced electroacoustic assessments of hearing. Thompson and Hoffman Audiology Inc. are based at Alberlito Hospital in Ballito, St Augustines Hospital in Durban and at 345 Essenwood Road, Musgrave. The practices are all wheelchair friendly. There are three audiologists that practice from Thompson & Hoffman – including Dr Kara Hoffman, Lauren Thompson & Minette Lister. The practice boasts professional, highly qualified, and extensive diagnostic services where all your hearing healthcare needs can be met. The additional licensing in vestibular assessment and rehabilitation, paediatric rehabilitation and cochlear implantation places this practice in one of the top specialist audiological positions in South Africa, with a wealth of experience in all clinical areas of audiology and is a very well respected and sought-after practice.

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