Your son has type 1 diabetes which means that he has lost function of his pancreas which is responsible for insulin production. He is therefor dependent on Insulin to survive. Whenever the demand for insulin increases i.e. with a severe infection, his bloodsugars will go up.
Diabetic keto-acidosis develops when there is an absolute deficiency of insulin in the body. This means that insulin dependent organs such as the liver, muscle and fat cells cannot use glucose as a fuel substrate. The liver then produces fuel from other sources and the breakdown products (ketone bodies) of this process can acidify the blood. You are then left with a combination of blood sugar build up in the bloodstream along with increased acid and decreased fuel avaliable to the body for effective functioning. The high blood sugar level increase urinary output of glucose taking along with it excess water which leads to dehydration.
This is a serious condition and one must try and prevent or diagnose it as soon as possible. Good diabetic control is dependent on a balance between food intake and the insulin regime along with careful home monitoring. If you are worried about his nutrition, it might be worthwhile to see a dietitician with an interest in diabetes. Also anticipate problems with any infection and discuss adjustment of his insulin dose during these times with his attending peadiatrician- it may be necessary for you to monitor his sugar levels very carefully and often when an infection starts and to have a specific plan regarding insulin adjustments ready
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