Regarding your son with type 1 diabetes, there is often no family history of diabetes, and this type of diabetes is secondary to having a certain genetic makeup that puts a patient at risk along with an environmental trigger. Diabetes in pregnancy tends to happen in a patient who is predisposed to type 2 diabetes. The increased stress during pregnancy, secondary to pregnancy associated hormones causes glucose readings to go up, but then they revert back to the pre pregnancy state after delivery. Patients are, however, at increased risk for diabetes later on. Risk factors associated with pregnancy associated diabetes include: being overweight, family history of diabetes, polycystic ovarian syndrome, older age, and previously large baby >4.5kg. Target glucose levels in pregnancy are a fasting level of less than 5.5 and a 1 hour post meal(1 hour after first bite of food) level of less than 8.
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