Dogs perform lifesaving jobs every day. They sniff out bombs, locate lost children and even find people buried by avalanches.
Now another type of specially-trained working dog has emerged in recent years. Comfort dogs come to the emotional rescue of people who are suffering in the aftermath of disasters or battling the difficulties of daily life.
Their job is deceptively simple: to get people to open up and talk about what happened.
Amy Rideout, president of HOPE Animal-Assisted Crisis Response, a national organisation with more than 100 certified dog-handler teams, said engaging in a discussion about an experience is healing and helps a person to overcome a traumatic event.
Petting lowers blood pressure
There are other health benefits the pooches provide. Research has shown the simple act of petting a dog helps to lower blood pressure, lift spirits and reduce stress.
"There are not too many things that we can do that can make an instantaneous impact on somebody, so this is special work," she said.
To become certified with HOPE, dog-handler teams must go through 40 hours of basic training, then tackle specialised coursework such as learning crisis intervention skills and the FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) incident command system, as well as participating in mock disaster drills. Dogs are painstakingly desensitised to sights, sounds and smells typically encountered during a disaster. And all teams are recertified yearly.
Decade's worst tragedies
Members of HOPE have responded to some of the decade's worst tragedies, including Hurricane Katrina and the Virginia Tech school shootings.
After 9/11, Rideout and her hound, Janie, were sent to a family assistance centre in New York City to support families who had lost a loved one. But surprisingly, she said, it was the stressed-out emergency responders who seemed to need her and Janie the most.
"Those were the folks who would come up to Janie and give her a big bear hug and say, 'Thank you. I needed that before I went back to work today'," she recalled.
Opens up conversation
Not all comfort dogs are used to help people emotionally cope after disaster strikes.
Meet Fuerst. Every weekday morning around 9am, Pastor Tim Engel drives his faithful canine partner to work at Holy Cross Lutheran Church in Portage, Ind.
Fuerst is one of nearly 30 Golden Retrievers permanently placed at churches throughout Indiana and Illinois by Lutheran Church Charities, a national ministry.
"His job is to help open up opportunities for conversations and Christian ministry that otherwise wouldn't happen," explained Engel.
The retriever has been at Holy Cross for a little more than a year now.
Fuerst - the German word for prince - goes everywhere with pastor Engel, from visiting nursing homes and emergency hospital rooms to attending Sunday service.
"Not everybody sees the value of [Fuerst] like I do," he admits. "But the majority of the members look forward to seeing him on Sunday morning and they understand his function in our church."
Doggie business card
Like others in the K9 Parish Comfort Dog Ministry, Fuerst has his own business card. On the front are his picture and the church's phone number; on the back is his job description. The business cards are frequently handed out in the community, he said.
On occasion, people have phoned the church to schedule a private meeting with Fuerst - and only Fuerst.
Engel laughs recalling some of those requests but insists that he isn't offended.
"If the dog provides comfort for people and is something that makes them feel more at ease then the dog is doing his job," he said. - (Maryann Mott/HealthDay News, March 2010)