So reports a new Ecological Applicationspaper, which
highlights the ecological cost of pharmaceutical waste and the need for more
research into environmental impacts.
Lead author Dr Emma Rosi-Marshall, a scientist at the Cary
Institute of Ecosystem Studies, comments: "Pharmaceutical pollution is now
detected in waters throughout the world. Causes include ageing infrastructure,
sewage overflows, and agricultural run-off. Even when waste water makes it to
sewage treatment facilities, they aren't equipped to remove pharmaceuticals. As
a result, our streams and rivers are exposed to a cocktail of synthetic compounds,
from stimulants and antibiotics to analgesics and antihistamines."
How the study was
With colleagues from Indiana University and Loyola
University Chicago, Rosi-Marshall looked at how six common pharmaceuticals
influenced similar-sized streams in New York, Maryland, and Indiana. Caffeine,
the antibiotic ciprofloxacin, the antidiabetic metformin, two antihistimines
used to treat heartburn (cimetidine and ranitidine), and one antihistamine used
to treat allergies (diphenhydramine) were investigated, both alone and in combinations,
using pharmaceutical-diffusing substrates.
Rosi-Marshall explains, "We focused on the response of
biofilms – which most people know as the slippery coating on stream rocks –
because they're vital to stream health. They might not look like much to the
naked eye, but biofilms are complex communities composed of algae, fungi, and
bacteria all living and working together. In streams, biofilms contribute to
water quality by recycling nutrients and organic matter. They're also a major
food source for invertebrates that, in turn, feed larger animals like fish."
Healthy streams are slippery streams. And it turns out that
antihistamines dry more than our noses. The most striking result of the study
was diphenhydramine's effects on algal production and microbial respiration.
Exposure caused biofilms to experience up to a 99% decrease in photosynthesis,
as well as significant drops in respiration.
Diphenhydramine also caused a change in the bacterial
species present in the biofilms, including an increase in a bacterial group
known to degrade toxic compounds and a reduction in a group that digests
compounds produced by plants and algae.