Our expert says:
The most common cause for this is just the valve between the bladder and the ureter not closing properly. In most kids they "outgrow" this and they just need regular follow up and sonars. They may be more prone to urinary tract infections and may get "colic" because the urine pushes back into the kidneys when the bladder is full. If it does not improve on its own they can remedy this by injecting a small amount of teflon in the area of the valve, helping it to close better. This they do under anaesthetic and through a scope, so no cutting involved.
See also http://www.ich.ucl.ac.uk/factsheets/families/F050193/index.html
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