advertisement
Updated 06 May 2014

Read this and understand your child

Ever wondered why children of certain ages have the same issues, such as the well-known terrible two's or adolescent rebellion? They are stages of psychological development.

0

Ever wondered why children of certain ages have the same issues, such as the well-known terrible two's or the rebellion of adolescents? The psychologist Erik Erikson shed light on this when he developed his stages of psychological development.

Erikson developed a theory of how people develop psychologically. He is known for his theory of the stages of psychological issues or crisis.

Each stage focuses on an issue or crisis that is especially important at that time of life. The way in which people respond to and deal with the issue or crisis, shapes their personalities and interpersonal relationships.

The stages are:

First year: Trust versus mistrust
Infants develop a feeling of basic trust (or mistrust) about the world. They learn that their needs will (or won't) be met by the world, especially by the primary caregiver.

Second year: Autonomy versus shame and doubt
Children learn to exercise will, to make choices and to control themselves - or they become uncertain and doubt that they can do things by themselves.

Third to fifth year: Initiative versus guilt
Children learn to initiate activities and enjoy their accomplishments, acquiring direction and purpose. Or, if they are not allowed initiative, they feel inferior and lose interest in the tasks before them.

Sixth year through puberty: Industry versus inferiority
Children develop a sense of industry and curiosity and are eager to learn - or they feel inferior and lose interest in the tasks before them.

Adolescence: Identity versus role confusion
Adolescents come to see themselves as unique and integrated persons with an ideology - or they become confused about what they want out of life.

Early adulthood: Intimacy versus isolation
Young people become able to commit themselves to another person - or they develop a sense of isolation and feel they have no one in the world but themselves.

(Ilse Pauw, Health24)

 
NEXT ON HEALTH24X
advertisement

Read Health24’s Comments Policy

Comment on this story
0 comments
Comments have been closed for this article.

Live healthier

The debate continues »

Working out in the concrete jungle 7 top butt exercises for guys 10 things pole dancing can do for you

The running vs. walking debate

There are many different theories when it comes to the running vs. walking for health and weight loss.

Veganism a crime? »

Running the Comrades Marathon on a vegan diet Are vegans unnatural beasts? Can a vegan be really healthy?

Should it be a crime to raise a baby on vegan food?

After a number of cases of malnourishment in Italy, it may become a crime to feed children under 16 a vegan diet.