A group representing paediatricians says disciplining students with
out-of-school suspension or expulsion is counter-productive to school goals and
should only be used on case by case basis.
The policy statement from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends
that paediatricians familiarise themselves with the policies of their local
school districts, and advocate for prevention and alternative strategies.
"The adverse effect of out-of-school suspension and expulsion on the student
can be profound," the experts wrote.
"Data suggest that students who are involved in the juvenile justice system
are likely to have been suspended or expelled. Further, students who experience
out-of-school suspension and expulsion are as much as 10 times more likely to
ultimately drop out of high school than are those who do not," they add.
Kathy Cowan, director of communications for the National Association of
School Psychologists in Bethesda, Maryland, said their organisation largely
supports the AAP's statements. "Sometimes (out-of-school suspension and expulsion) are absolutely necessary,
but they're not effective at improving behaviour in general," Cowan said.
The AAP says students who are punished with out-of-school suspension and
expulsion may be left without supervision during the day and engage in more
The experts also say out-of-school suspension and expulsion does not deal
with possible underlying issues, such as drug abuse, racial tension, violence
In addition to the costs incurred by the school district from disciplinary
hearings and providing services for the child, the paediatricians say there is
also a cost to society.
"A high-school dropout will earn less over a lifetime than a high
school graduate. The dropout will pay less in taxes," they write.
To prevent out-of-school suspensions and expulsions, the paediatricians
suggest developing early interventions for preschool children, early
identification of children who may have problems in school and clear codes of
Specifically, they recommend a Positive Behavior Intervention and Support
program as a preventive, alternative, tool that teaches proper behaviour on a
school-wide level and that addresses problems with groups and individual
students as well.
The AAP also called on Paediatricians to screen for and recognise behavioural
problems in early childhood, to be in communication with the school's nurse or
counsellor, to be involved with special accommodations for certain students and
to be appropriately compensated for their involvement. Cowan said the AAP should
be applauded for their efforts.
"Paediatricians are such an important voice on these issues, because parents
trust the paediatricians and they're the ones seeing kids," she said. Dr Jeffrey
Lamont, the policy statement's lead author, did not respond to requests for