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19 November 2015

Gene mutations may increase some kids' cancer risk

Genetic screening might be useful for all childhood cancer patients, as doing so would improve the chances of detecting cancers at their earliest and most treatable stages.

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More than 8 percent of children with cancer have gene mutations that increase their risk of cancer, a new study says.

The findings suggest that genetic screening might be important in all childhood cancer patients, not just those with a family history of cancer, according to the researchers with the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital-Washington University Paediatric Cancer Genome Project.

Doing so would improve the chances of detecting cancers at their earliest and most treatable stages, the researchers said.

Read: Tips for parents of children with cancer

The researchers analysed tumour and normal tissues from 1,120 childhood cancer patients and found that 8.5 percent of the children had genetic mutations in their normal tissue that increase the risk of cancer. More than half of the children with these mutations came from families with no history of cancer.

Previously, it was thought that such mutations were rare and occurred only among children in families with a strong history of cancer, according to the study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine.

Read: More and more children are survive cancer

"This paper marks an important turning point in our understanding of paediatric cancer risk and will likely change how patients are evaluated," corresponding author Dr James Downing, St. Jude president and chief executive officer, said in a news release from the Memphis hospital.

"For many paediatric cancer patients, comprehensive next-generation DNA sequencing of both their tumour and normal tissue may provide valuable information that will not only influence their clinical management but also lead to genetic counselling and testing of their parents and siblings who may be at risk and would benefit from ongoing surveillance," he explained.

"The frequency of 8.5 percent represents our current estimate of the number of paediatric patients with a hereditary cancer predisposition. This number will likely increase as we learn more about mutations in this class of genes in young cancer patients," Downing added.

Read more: 

Explaining cancer to your child 

Childhood cancer ups risk of autoimmune disorders 

Ewing's sarcoma 

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