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Updated 18 February 2013

Salatrim

Salatrim stands for "short- and long-chain acyl triglyceride molecules". Salatrim is mainly composed of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and stearic acid. SCFAs contain fewer calories per gram than other fats, and the stearic acid in salatrim may be absorbed at a low rate from the gastrointestinal tract. For these reasons, salatrim was proposed as a reduced fat, reduced-calorie, fat replacer. Salatrim contains no trans fats and has five calories per gram. The same amount of fat contains nine calories.

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RELATED TERMS

Benefat™, salatrim 23CA, short- and long-chain acyl triglyceride molecules, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), stearic acid.

BACKGROUND

Salatrim stands for "short- and long-chain acyl triglyceride molecules". Salatrim is mainly composed of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and stearic acid. SCFAs contain fewer calories per gram than other fats, and the stearic acid in salatrim may be absorbed at a low rate from the gastrointestinal tract. For these reasons, salatrim was proposed as a reduced fat, reduced-calorie, fat replacer. Salatrim contains no trans fats and has five calories per gram. The same amount of fat contains nine calories.

Nabisco and the Pfizer Food Science Group licensed salatrim and performed studies in animals and humans to demonstrate its safety. Initially, salatrim served as a replacement for cocoa butter in baking chips and sweets. Salatrim may be used in various products, including baked goods and microwave popcorn. It is not suitable for use as an oil for deep frying because it breaks down at the high temperatures used.

The SCFAs and stearic acid in salatrim occur naturally and are thought to be processed by the body in the same way as other fats. For this reason, consuming salatrim is predicted to cause the same feeling of fullness caused by eating other fats.

Nabisco sold the rights to salatrim to Cultor, which currently markets the substance under the name of Benefat™.

EVIDENCE TABLE

Conditions

Uses
disclaimer: These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
Grade*

*Key to grades: A: Strong scientific evidence for this use; B: Good scientific evidence for this use; C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use; D: Fair scientific evidence against this use (it may not work); F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likely does not work).

Conditions

Uses
disclaimer: These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
Grade*

Appetite suppressant

Salatrim is used as a low-calorie fat substitute. Limited study suggests that salatrim may increase a feeling of fullness and decrease hunger. More well-designed trials are needed before a firm conclusion can be made.

B

*Key to grades: A: Strong scientific evidence for this use; B: Good scientific evidence for this use; C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use; D: Fair scientific evidence against this use (it may not work); F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likely does not work).

TRADITION

DOSING

disclaimer: The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.

Adults (18 years and older)

There is no proven safe or effective dose for salatrim in adults.

Children (under 18 years old)

There is no proven safe or effective dose for salatrim in children.

SAFETY

disclaimer: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies

Insufficient available evidence.

Side Effects and Warnings

Salatrim is possibly safe when used in amounts found in foods. Salatrim is listed on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) list. However, some experts suggest that salatrim and other fat substitutes may be unsafe.

Use cautiously in patients with liver disease, as salatrim in high amounts has been shown to increase plasma serum liver enzymes.

Salatrim may cause mild gastrointestinal symptoms, nausea, diarrhea, and abdominal cramping.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Avoid in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence.

INTERACTIONS

disclaimer: Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

Interactions with Drugs

Insufficient available evidence.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

Insufficient available evidence.

ATTRIBUTION

This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).

  • Finley JW, Leveille GA, Dixon RM, et al. Clinical Assessment of SALATRIM, a reduced-calorie triacylglycerol. J Agric Food Chem 1994;42(2):581-596.
  • French S. Effects of dietary fat and carbohydrate on appetite vary depending upon site and structure. Br J Nutr 2004;92 Suppl 1:S23-S26. View abstract
  • Henry J. Processing, manufacturing, uses and labelling of fats in the food supply. Ann Nutr Metab 2009;55(1-3):273-300. View abstract
  • Jang Y, Han JJ, Kwon SJ, et al. Low-calorie structured lipid synthesis by lipase-catalyzed transesterification. Ann NY Acad Sci 1998;864:313-317. View abstract
  • Jasper JP. GC-FID- and acyl carbon number-based determination of characteristic groupings of complex triglyceride (Benefat S and other) mixtures. J Agric Food Chem 2000;48(3):785-791. View abstract
  • Krotkiewski M. Value of VLCD supplementation with medium chain triglycerides. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001;25(9):1393-1400. View abstract
  • Livesey G. The absorption of stearic acid from triacylglycerols: an inquiry and analysis. Nutr Res Rev 2000;13(2):185-214. View abstract
  • McLaughlin J, Grazia Luc© M, Jones MN, et al. Fatty acid chain length determines cholecystokinin secretion and effect on human gastric motility. Gastroenterology 1999;116(1):46-53. View abstract
  • Migrenne S, Magnan C, Cruciani-Guglielmacci C. Fatty acid sensing and nervous control of energy homeostasis. Diabetes Metab 2007;33(3):177-182. View abstract
  • Peikin SR. Role of cholecystokinin in the control of food intake. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 1989;18(4):757-775. View abstract
  • Sorensen LB, Cueto HT, Andersen MT, et al. The effect of salatrim, a low-calorie modified triacylglycerol, on appetite and energy intake. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87(5):1163-1169. View abstract
  • Stubbs RJ, Harbron CG. Covert manipulation of the ratio of medium- to long-chain triglycerides in isoenergetically dense diets: effect on food intake in ad libitum feeding men. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1996;20(5):435-444. View abstract
  • Tuomasjukka S, Viitanen M, Kallio H. Stearic acid is well absorbed from short- and long-acyl-chain triacylglycerol in an acute test meal. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007;61(12):1352-1358. View abstract
  • Van Wymelbeke V, Himaya A, Louis-Sylvestre J, et al. Influence of medium-chain and long-chain triacylglycerols on the control of food intake in men. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68(2):226-234. View abstract
  • Van Wymelbeke V, Louis-Sylvestre J, Fantino M. Substrate oxidation and control of food intake in men after a fat-substitute meal compared with meals supplemented with an isoenergetic load of carbohydrate, long-chain triacylglycerols, or medium-chain triacylglycerols. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;74(5):620-630. View abstract
disclaimer: Natural Standard Bottom Line Monograph, Copyright © 2011 (www.naturalstandard.com). Commercial distribution prohibited. This monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. You should consult with a qualified healthcare provider before making decisions about therapies and/or health conditions. disclaimer: While some complementary and alternative techniques have been studied scientifically, high-quality data regarding safety, effectiveness, and mechanism of action are limited or controversial for most therapies. Whenever possible, it is recommended that practitioners be licensed by a recognized professional organization that adheres to clearly published standards. In addition, before starting a new technique or engaging a practitioner, it is recommended that patients speak with their primary healthcare provider(s). Potential benefits, risks (including financial costs), and alternatives should be carefully considered. The below monograph is designed to provide historical background and an overview of clinically-oriented research, and neither advocates for or against the use of a particular therapy. disclaimer: The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)



Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)
 
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