Abraj kmno vitu (Czech), aflatoxin B1, alpha-pinene, anise acre, Apiaceae (family), Apiaceae spices, beta-pinene, borsos k©m©ny (Hungarian), caffeic acid, camon (kamon, kamoon, kammon, kammun) (Hebrew), camon tarbuti (Hebrew), cheeregum, chlorogenic acid, cirakam (shiragam) (Tamil), cominho (Portuguese), comino (Italian, Spanish), comino bianco (Italian), comino blanco (Spanish), comino romano (Italian), cumin (French), cumin acre, cumin aldehyde, cumin blanc (French), cumin de Malte (French), cumin du Maroc (French), cumin seeds, cuminaldehyde (4-isopropylbenzaldehyde), cumino (Italian), Cuminum cyminum, cummin, dž©ra (Slovakian), egyiptomi k©m©ny (Hungarian), faux anis (French), ferulic acid, gamma-terpinene, genistein, harilik v©rtsik©©men (Estonian), hime unikyoo (Japanese), jamda (Swahili), jeelakarra (jilakarra) (Telugu), jeera (Hindi), jeerige (jirige) (Kannada), jeraka, jerakam (jirakam) (Malayalam), jiiraa (Hindi, Nepalese), jintan (Malay), jintan puteh (jintan putih) (Malay), jinten (Malay), jinten putih (Indonesia) (Malay), jira (Swahili), jiraa (jeera) (Bengali), jiraka (Telugu), jirakam (jeerakam) (Tamil), jire (Marathi), jiru (Gujarati), juustokumina (Finnish), juustuk©©men (Estonian), kaalaa jiiraa (Hindi), kammun (kamun, cammun, kamoun, kammoon) (Arabic), kimino (kiminon), kimion (Bulgarian), kimion italianski (Bulgarian), kimion rimski (Bulgarian), kimon (Armenian), kimyon (Turkish), kisibiti (Swahili), kloeftsvoeb (Danish), kmin (Ukranian), komijn (Dutch), Kreuzk©mmel (German), kumin (Croatian, Japanese), kumina (Finnish), kuminmag (Hungarian), kummin (Icelandic), limonene, lysine, ma chin (Khmer), ma qin (ma ch'in) (Chinese), maustekumina (Finnish), myrcene, myrtenal, ostak©men (Icelandic), ou shi luo (Chinese), p-cymene, pepparkummin (Swedish), pyrazines, rasca r©mska (Slovakian), r©msk© km©n (Czech), r©mai k©m©ny (Hungarian), Roman caraway, romersk kummin (Swedish), romischer K©mmel (German), roomankumina (Finnish), rumunsko kmun (Czech), šabrej km©novit© (Czech), safed jiiraa, safaid jeera, safed ziiraa, safed zira, (Hindi), sannut (Arabic), selenium, spidskommen (Danish), spiskummin (Swedish), spisskarve (Norwegian), spisskummen (Norwegian), sweet cumin, tannins, thian khao (Thia), thien khaw (Laotian), threonine, vit kummin (Swedish), v©rtsk©©men (Estonian), wei©er Kreuzk©mmel (German), witte komijn (Dutch), xian hao (Chinese), xiang han qin (Chinese), yee raa (Thai), zamorska kumina (Slovenian), zi ran (Chinese), ziiraa (zeera, zira) (Hindi), ziraa (jirah, zeera) (Urdu), zireh (zire, zira) (Persian), zireye sabz (zireh sabz) (Persian), ziya (Burmese).
Note: Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) is occasionally confused with caraway (Carum carvi), and some European languages may not clearly differentiate between the two. Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) is not related to curcumin, which is a chemical found in turmeric. This monograph does not include information on black cumin (Nigella sativa or Bunium persicum).
Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) is native from the eastern Mediterranean area to eastern India. It has been found in excavation sites in Syria from around 2000 BC and in Egyptian sites from the 16th to 11th Centuries BC. It continues to be used as a medicinal herb and in cooking throughout the Middle East, North Africa, South Asia, and parts of southern Europe. Cumin is also found in "Tex-Mex," Brazilian, and Cuban cuisine and may be found in Dutch cheeses (such as Leyden cheese) and in some traditional French breads.
Early evidence suggests that cumin may have antibacterial properties. It may also inhibit blood clotting and decrease a person's dependence on morphine, an opioid used for pain relief that has the potential for addiction. Cumin has been used as a diuretic (increases urine production), dyspeptic (relieves indigestion), carminative (prevents gas), stimulant, astringent, and emmenagogic (stimulates menstruation). Cumin may also relieve symptoms associated with carpal tunnel syndrome.
These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
*Key to grades:
A: Strong scientific evidence for this use;
B: Good scientific evidence for this use;
C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use;
D: Fair scientific evidence against this use (it may not work);
F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likely does not work).
The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below. Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-thrombosis (prevention of blood clots), atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), cancer, dyspepsia/indigestion/flatulence, ear infections, general health maintenance, hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol), hypoglycemia (high blood sugar), preservative.
The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.
Adults (18 years and older)
There is no proven safe or effective dose for cumin in adults.
Children (under 18 years old)
There is no proven safe or effective dose for cumin in children.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.
Avoid with known allergy/hypersensitivity to Cuminum cyminum, its constituents, or plants of the Apiaceae family.
Side Effects and Warnings
An allergic skin reaction (called contact dermatitis) has been reported after applying and consuming cumin.
Cumin has been shown to contain aflatoxin B1, which has been linked to liver cancer.
Respiratory reactions have been reported after consuming cumin.
Use cautiously in patients taking anticoagulants ("blood thinners") or antiplatelet drugs.
Use cautiously in patients taking medications that lower cholesterol levels.
Use cautiously in patients taking any of the following: narcotic pain relievers, antibiotics, antifungals, and agents that affect hormones.
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
Cumin is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence.
Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.
Interactions with Drugs
Cumin may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with drugs that increase the risk of bleeding. Some examples include aspirin, anticoagulants ("blood thinners") such as warfarin (Coumadin©) or heparin, anti-platelet drugs such as clopidogrel (Plavix©), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) such as ibuprofen (Motrin©, Advil©) or naproxen (Naprosyn©, Aleve©).
Cumin may reduce blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using medications that may also lower blood sugar. Patients taking drugs for diabetes by mouth or insulin should be monitored closely by their qualified healthcare professionals, including pharmacists. Medication adjustments may be necessary.
Cumin may lower cholesterol. Caution is advised when using medications that may also lower cholesterol.
Cumin may interact with narcotic pain relievers, antibiotics, antifungals, and drugs that affect hormones.
Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements
Cumin may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with herbs that increase the risk of bleeding. Multiple cases of bleeding have been reported with the use of Ginkgo biloba, and fewer cases with garlic and saw palmetto. Numerous other agents may theoretically increase the risk of bleeding, although this has not been proven in most cases.
Cumin may reduce blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using herbs or supplements that may also lower blood sugar.
Cumin may lower cholesterol. Caution is advised when using herbs or supplements that may also lower cholesterol.
Cumin may interact with antibacterials, antifungals, and herbs or supplements that affect hormones.
This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).
Natural Standard Bottom Line Monograph, Copyright © 2011 (www.naturalstandard.com). Commercial distribution prohibited. This monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. You should consult with a qualified healthcare provider before making decisions about therapies and/or health conditions.
While some complementary and alternative techniques have been studied scientifically, high-quality data regarding safety, effectiveness, and mechanism of action are limited or controversial for most therapies. Whenever possible, it is recommended that practitioners be licensed by a recognized professional organization that adheres to clearly published standards. In addition, before starting a new technique or engaging a practitioner, it is recommended that patients speak with their primary healthcare provider(s). Potential benefits, risks (including financial costs), and alternatives should be carefully considered. The below monograph is designed to provide historical background and an overview of clinically-oriented research, and neither advocates for or against the use of a particular therapy.
The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.
- Boxer, M, Roberts, M, and Grammer, L. Cumin anaphylaxis: a case report. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;99(5):722-723.
- Clarke, D. B., Barnes, K. A., and Lloyd, A. S. Determination of unusual soya and non-soya phytoestrogen sources in beer, fish products and other foods. Food Addit.Contam 2004;21(10):949-962.
- Haghparast, A, Shams, J, Khatibi, A, et al. Effects of the fruit essential oil of Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Apiaceae) on acquisition and expression of morphine tolerance and dependence in mice. Neurosci Lett 8-1-2008;440(2):134-139.
- Nostro, A, Cellini, L, Di Bartolomeo, S, et al. Antibacterial effect of plant extracts against Helicobacter pylori. Phytother Res 2005;19(3):198-202.
- Srinivasan, K. Plant foods in the management of diabetes mellitus: spices as beneficial antidiabetic food adjuncts. Int.J.Food Sci.Nutr. 2005;56(6):399-414.
Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)
Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)