advertisement
Updated 18 February 2013

Chrysanthemum

Chrysanthemum is a popular plant for its ornamental, food, and insecticidal uses. Pyrethrins (natural organic compounds) extracted from the seed casings of chrysanthemum, such as Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium and Chrysanthemum coccineum, are used as insecticides and insect repellents. Pyrethrins are known to have a relatively low risk of chronic accumulation, but poisoning may occur from accidental or intentional ingestion or chronic exposure.

0

RELATED TERMS

Alantolactone, alpha-pinene, alpha-thujone, apigenin, arnidiol, Asteraceae (family), beta-caryophyllene, borenolide, brein, calenduladiol, camphor, chrysancorin, Chrysanthemum boreale, Chrysanthemum boreale M, Chrysanthemum boreale Makino, Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium, Chrysanthemum cocineum, Chrysanthemum coronarium L., Chrysanthemum coronarium var. spatiosum, Chrysanthemum indicum, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Chrysanthemum morifolium extract, Chrysanthemum multiflorum, Chrysanthemum parthenium, Chrysanthemum viscidehirtum, Chrysanthemum x morifolium Ramat, Chrysanthemum zawadskii cocineum, chrysin, cis-chrysanthenol, coflodiol, Compositae family, Dendranthema, dicaffeoylquinic acids, erythrodiol, faradiol, faradiol alpha-epoxide, flavonoids, feverfew, glucuronide, Indian standard series, jiangtangkang (Chinese), JTK, linarin, longispinogenin (Chinese), luteolin, maniladiol (Chinese), marguerite, oleananes, ox-eye daisy, parthenolide, PC-SPES©, pyrethrins, pyrethroids, pyrethrum, sesquiterpene lactones, sesquiterpenes, Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip, taraxastanes, uvaol, ursanes.

Note: This monograph does not cover tansy (Tanacetum vulgare), which is sometimes classified as Chrysanthemum vulgare; please see the tansy monograph for more information on this topic. Although Chrysanthemum is a component of PC-SPES, this monograph does not cover PC-SPES; please see the PC-SPES monograph for more information on this topic.

WARNING: PC-SPES HAS BEEN RECALLED FROM THE U.S. MARKET AND SHOULD NOT BE USED.

BACKGROUND

Chrysanthemum is a popular plant for its ornamental, food, and insecticidal uses. Pyrethrins (natural organic compounds) extracted from the seed casings of chrysanthemum, such as Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium and Chrysanthemum coccineum, are used as insecticides and insect repellents. Pyrethrins are known to have a relatively low risk of chronic accumulation, but poisoning may occur from accidental or intentional ingestion or chronic exposure.

Preliminary laboratory studies suggest that chrysanthemum may be beneficial for the treatment of gout (food inflammation) and may alter immune function. In clinical trials, chrysanthemum has decreased diabetes symptoms and a combination including chrysanthemum reduced pre-cancerous lesions. Although the studies in these areas seem promising, more research is needed.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not list chrysanthemum on its Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) list.

EVIDENCE TABLE

Conditions

Uses
disclaimer: These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
Grade*

Cancer (pre-cancerous lesions)

Early study indicates that hua-sheng-ping (includes Chrysanthemum morifolium, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, and Panax notoginseng) may be beneficial for patients with precancerous lesions. However, more research is needed.

C

Diabetes

A study using a chrysanthemum product, jiangtangkang, indicated that jiangtangkang may be beneficial for patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes. However, results are mixed and additional studies are needed before a firm recommendation can be made.

C

*Key to grades: A: Strong scientific evidence for this use; B: Good scientific evidence for this use; C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use; D: Fair scientific evidence against this use (it may not work); F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likely does not work).

TRADITION

The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below. Anesthetic (reduces pain), antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cancer, Epstein-Barr virus, gout (foot inflammation), herpes simplex virus, HIV, hypertension (high blood pressure), immunomodulation, insecticide, migraine, molluscicide, mosquito repellent.

DOSING

disclaimer: The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.

Adults (over 18 years old)

There is no proven effective dose for chrysanthemum in adults. Jiangtangkang (a chrysanthemum product) 8 grams, three times per day for six months has been used in the treatment of diabetes.

Children (under 18 years old)

There is no proven safe or effective dose for chrysanthemum in children.

SAFETY

disclaimer: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies

Avoid in individuals with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to chrysanthemum, its constituents, or members of the Asteraceae/Compositae family, such as dandelion, goldenrod, ragweed, sunflower, and daisies.

There are numerous case reports and studies showing that allergies to chrysanthemum are very common, and chrysanthemum may be the strongest sensitizer of the cultivated Compositae plants, with an estimated 60% of Europeans being allergic. Patients may be sensitive to pollen, leaves, flowers, stems, the whole plant, and even chrysanthemum oleoresin extract and chrysanthemum oil of turpentine. Occupational exposure is associated with allergy. Symptoms of allergy may include asthma, skin rash, eczema, photosensitivity, hay fever, inflammation of the sinuses, or hives.

There have also been cases of cross-sensitivity between chrysanthemum and feverfew, tansy, chamomile, Artemisia vulgaris, Liliaceae plants, tulip, Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum), Gerbera, lettuce, Senecio cruentus, Aster, Matricaria, Solidago, daisy, dandelion, Parthenium hysterophorus L., Xanthium strumarium L., Helanthus annuus L., Frullania dilatata, Frullania tamarisci, Arnica longifolia Eaton, Arnica montana L., primrose, sunflower, ragweed, the pollen of the Amaryllidaceae family (Alstroemeria and Narcissus), and mugwort.

Side Effects and Warnings

Chrysanthemum is likely safe when pesticide- and preservative-free flowers are used in food amounts. There is a lack of information about its use medicinally for any indication.

Clinical reports suggest that pyrethrins, which are chemicals found in chrysanthemum, may cause skin inflammation or eye disorders, such as corneal (part of the eye) erosion. Poisoning from pyrethrins can occur, and is usually due to accidental or intentional ingestion, but may also be caused by chronic exposure. Adverse effects are related to toxicity in the nervous system. There is no known antidote for pyrethrin and pyrethroid poisoning; treatment is symptomatic and supportive. Two deaths from acute asthma have been attributed to pyrethrins. Avoid large acute or chronic doses of ingested pyrethrin. Also avoid pyrethrin in patients with compromised liver function, epilepsy, asthma, or who are pregnant or breastfeeding.

Use chrysanthemum cautiously in patients taking medication for gout (foot inflammation), cancer, or HIV.

Use cautiously in patients with compromised immune systems or taking immunomodulators.

Avoid in patients with photosensitivity or taking photosensitizers.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Chrysanthemum is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence.

INTERACTIONS

disclaimer: Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

Interactions with Drugs

Chrysanthemum may have anesthetizing (pain numbing), antibacterial, anticancer, antifungal, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activity. Caution is advised in patients taking agents with similar effects due to potential additive effects.

Chrysanthemum may inhibit certain enzymes that play a role in gout (foot inflammation). Use cautiously with medications that treat gout.

Chrysanthemum may have anti-HIV activity. Use cautiously with antiretroviral medications, due to possible additive effects. Chrysanthemum may also interact with immunosuppressants.

Pyrethrins from Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium have been studied in the treatment of the herpes virus. Although there is a lack of information in humans, caution is advised in patients taking herpes agents.

The chrysanthemum product jiangtangkang may improve fasting blood glucose (sugar) and post-meal blood glucose and increase sensitivity to insulin in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes. Although there is conflicting evidence in this area, caution is advised in patients taking agents for diabetes or hypoglycemia.

Chrysanthemum may cause photosensitization and may cause hyperpigmentation, skin inflammation, or make a patient more sensitive to laser treatment. Use cautiously with photosensitizing agents.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

Chrysanthemum may have anesthetizing (pain numbing), antibacterial, anticancer, antifungal, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activity. Caution is advised in patients taking agents with similar effects due to potential additive effects.

Chrysanthemum may inhibit certain enzymes that play a role in gout (foot inflammation). Use cautiously with herbs or supplements used in the treatment of gout.

Chrysanthemum may have anti-HIV activity. Use cautiously with antiretroviral herbs or supplements, due to possible additive effects. Chrysanthemum may also interact with immunosuppressants.

Pyrethrins from Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium have been studied in the treatment of the herpes virus. Although there is a lack of information in humans, caution is advised in patients taking herpes agents.

The chrysanthemum product jiangtangkang may improve fasting blood glucose (sugar) and post-meal blood glucose and increase sensitivity to insulin in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes. Although there is conflicting evidence in this area, caution is advised in patients taking agents for diabetes or hypoglycemia (high or low blood sugar).

Chrysanthemum may cause photosensitization and may cause hyperpigmentation, dermatitis, or make a patient more sensitive to laser treatment. Use cautiously with herbs and supplements with similar effects.

ATTRIBUTION

This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).

  • Chen K, Plumb GW, Bennett RN, et al. Antioxidant activities of extracts from five anti-viral medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 1-4-2005;96(1-2):201-205. View abstract
  • Groenewoud GC, de Groot H, van Wijk RG. Impact of occupational and inhalant allergy on rhinitis-specific quality of life in employees of bell pepper greenhouses in the Netherlands. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2006;96(1):92-97. View abstract
  • Hadis M, Lulu M, Mekonnen Y, et al. Field trials on the repellent activity of four plant products against mainly Mansonia population in western Ethiopia. Phytother Res 2003;17(3):202-205. View abstract
  • Hussain Z, Waheed A, Qureshi RA, et al. The effect of medicinal plants of Islamabad and Murree region of Pakistan on insulin secretion from INS-1 cells. Phytother Res 2004;18(1):73-77. View abstract
  • Jovanovic M, Poljacki M. [Compositae dermatitis]. Med Pregl. 2003;56(1-2):43-49. View abstract
  • Kim HJ, Lee YS. Identification of new dicaffeoylquinic acids from Chrysanthemum morifolium and their antioxidant activities. Planta Med 2005;71(9):871-876. View abstract
  • Kim KJ, Kim YH, Yu HH, et al. Antibacterial activity and chemical composition of essential oil of Chrysanthemum boreale. Planta Med. 2003;69(3):274-277. View abstract
  • Lee JR, Yang MS, Lee J, et al. New guaianolides from leaves and stems of Chrysanthemum boreale. Planta Med. 2003;69(9):880-882. View abstract
  • Lee JS, Kim HJ, Lee YS. A new anti-HIV flavonoid glucuronide from Chrysanthemum morifolium. Planta Med. 2003;69(9):859-861. View abstract
  • Li LP, Jiang HD. Determination and assay validation of luteolin and apigenin in human urine after oral administration of tablet of Chrysanthemum morifolium extract by HPLC. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 4-11-2006;41(1):261-265. View abstract
  • Macan J, Varnai VM, Turk R. [Health effects of pyrethrins and pyrethroids]. Arh.Hig.Rada Toksikol. 2006;57(2):237-243. View abstract
  • Proudfoot AT. Poisoning due to pyrethrins. Toxicol Rev 2005;24(2):107-113. View abstract
  • Rayman RB. Aircraft disinsection. Aviat.Space Environ.Med 2006;77(7):733-736. View abstract
  • Singh RP, Agrawal P, Yim D, et al. Acacetin inhibits cell growth and cell cycle progression, and induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells: structure-activity relationship with linarin and linarin acetate. Carcinogenesis 2005;26(4):845-854. View abstract
  • Swierczyniska-Machura D, Krakowiak A, Palczynski C. [Occupational allergy caused by ornamental plants]. Med Pr 2006;57(4):359-364. View abstract
disclaimer: Natural Standard Bottom Line Monograph, Copyright © 2011 (www.naturalstandard.com). Commercial distribution prohibited. This monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. You should consult with a qualified healthcare provider before making decisions about therapies and/or health conditions. disclaimer: While some complementary and alternative techniques have been studied scientifically, high-quality data regarding safety, effectiveness, and mechanism of action are limited or controversial for most therapies. Whenever possible, it is recommended that practitioners be licensed by a recognized professional organization that adheres to clearly published standards. In addition, before starting a new technique or engaging a practitioner, it is recommended that patients speak with their primary healthcare provider(s). Potential benefits, risks (including financial costs), and alternatives should be carefully considered. The below monograph is designed to provide historical background and an overview of clinically-oriented research, and neither advocates for or against the use of a particular therapy. disclaimer: The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)



Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)
 
NEXT ON HEALTH24X
advertisement

Read Health24’s Comments Policy

Comment on this story
0 comments
Comments have been closed for this article.

Live healthier

Watch out! »

Gross fungal infections you can pick up at the gym

You go to gym to exercise. But make sure the only thing you pick up is a dumbbell and not one of these gross fungal infections.

Holiday health »

Your 10-step asthma holiday checklist

Don’t let asthma ruin your summer holiday. Whether you are travelling or embracing the summer at home, make sure you plan ahead.