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Updated 18 February 2013

Bishop's weed (Ammi majus)

Bishop's weed (Ammi majus) is an annual plant in the Apiaceae family, often cultivated for its attractive flowering stems. It is also a commonly used spice in India.

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RELATED TERMS

5-MOP, 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), 8-MOP, Ammi majus, Ammi majus Linn, Apiaceae (family, formerly Umbelliferae), bergapten, bishop's flower, bishopsweed, bullwort, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, cinnamic acid, false queen Anne's lace, ferulic acid, furanocoumarins, gallic acid, greater ammi, lady's lace, large bullwort, methoxsalen, oxypeucedanin, phenolic acids, photochemotherapy, psoralens, tannic acid, Umbelliferae (former family), vanillic acid, xanthotoxin.

Note: Bishop's weed is also a widely used common name for other Apiaceae family plants, such as goutweed, also known as bishop's goutweed (Aegopodium podagraria L.), and khella (Ammi visnaga).

The prescription drug methoxsalen was developed from bishop's weed.

BACKGROUND

Bishop's weed (Ammi majus) is an annual plant in the Apiaceae family, often cultivated for its attractive flowering stems. It is also a commonly used spice in India.

Bishop's weed contains psoralens, which are substances that react with ultraviolet (UV) light and darken the skin. Psoralens are currently used together with UV light therapy to treat skin disorders such as psoriasis and vitiligo. Oral 8-methoxypsoralen, a drug made from bishop's weed, has been described as the drug of choice in photochemotherapy for vitiligo and psoriasis.

Early evidence suggests that psoralen compound 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) from Ammi majus may help treat vitiligo (leukoderma). However, case reports also mention potential phototoxic skin damage, phototoxic dermatitis, and pigmentary retinopathy caused by Ammi majus.

There is currently insufficient evidence available in humans to support the use of Ammi majus for any medical condition. High-quality human studies are needed before any strong conclusion can be made about its safety and effectiveness.

EVIDENCE TABLE

Conditions

Uses
disclaimer: These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
Grade*

Psoriasis

8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), a compound found in bishop's weed, has been used to treat psoriasis, although there is some concern that it may cause eye damage. There is a lack of available research on the safety of bishop's weed. High-quality human studies are needed before a conclusion can be made.

C

Tinea versicolor

8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), a compound found in bishop's weed, has been used to treat tinea versicolor. However, high-quality human studies are needed before a conclusion can be made.

C

Vitiligo (leukoderma)

Early research suggests that 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), a compound found in bishop's weed, may help treat vitiligo (leukoderma). However, high-quality human studies are needed before a conclusion can be made.

C

*Key to grades: A: Strong scientific evidence for this use; B: Good scientific evidence for this use; C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use; D: Fair scientific evidence against this use (it may not work); F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likely does not work).

TRADITION

The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below. Food uses, kidney stones.

DOSING

disclaimer: The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.

Adults (18 years and older)

For psoriasis, tinea versicolor, and vitiligo (leukoderma), 10-milligram capsules of a preparation containing ultramicronized methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) has been used. The authors concluded that the therapeutic effective dose was found to be 0.25 milligrams per kilogram of body weight.

Children (under 18 years old)

There is no proven safe or effective dose for bishop's weed in children.

SAFETY

disclaimer: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies

Avoid in individuals with known allergy/hypersensitivity to bishop's weed, its constituents, or members of the Apiaceae family. Reported allergic reactions include rhinitis and hives.

Bishop's weed may cause the skin to become sensitive to ultraviolet light and cause reddening of the skin, blisters, dermatitis, increased skin coloration, and pigmentary retinopathy. Repeated contact may lead to photocontact allergy.

Side Effects and Warnings

Reported allergic reactions include rhinitis and hives. Bishop's weed may cause the skin to become sensitive to ultraviolet light and cause reddening of the skin, blisters, dermatitis, increased skin coloration, and pigmentary retinopathy. Repeated contact may lead to photocontact allergy.

Bishop's weed may increase the risk of bleeding. Caution is advised in patients with bleeding disorders or taking agents that may increase the risk of bleeding. Dosing adjustments may be necessary.

Use cautiously in patients taking agents that are broken down by the liver's cytochrome P450 enzyme system.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Bishop's weed is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence.

INTERACTIONS

disclaimer: Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

Interactions with Drugs

Bishop's weed may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with blood thinners.

In theory, bishop's weed may increase the effects of drugs that are broken down by the liver's cytochrome P450 enzyme system.

Bishop's weed may cause the skin to become sensitive to ultraviolet light.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

Bishop's weed may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with herbs and supplements that are believed to increase the risk of bleeding.

In theory, bishop's weed may increase the effects of drugs that are broken down by the liver's cytochrome P450 enzyme system.

Bishop's weed may cause the skin to become sensitive to ultraviolet light.

ATTRIBUTION

This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).

  • Ahsan, S. K., Tariq, M., Ageel, A. M., al Yahya, M. A., and Shah, A. H. Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum and Ammi majus on calcium oxalate urolithiasis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 1989;26(3):249-254. View abstract
  • Bethea, D., Fullmer, B., Syed, S., Seltzer, G., Tiano, J., Rischko, C., Gillespie, L., Brown, D., and Gasparro, F. P. Psoralen photobiology and photochemotherapy: 50 years of science and medicine. J Dermatol Sci 1999;19(2):78-88. View abstract
  • Dollahite, J. W., Younger, R. L., and Hoffman, G. O. Photosensitization in cattle and sheep caused by feeding Ammi majus (greater Ammi; Bishop's-Weed). Am J Vet.Res 1978;39(1):193-197. View abstract
  • El Mofty, A. M. Observations on the use of Ammi majus Linn. In vitiligo. Br J Dermatol 1952;64(12):431-441. View abstract
  • El Mofty, A. M., el Sawalhy, H., and el Mofty, M. Clinical study of a new preparation of 8-methoxypsoralen in photochemotherapy. Int J Dermatol 1994;33(8):588-592. View abstract
  • Kavli, G. and Volden, G. Phytophotodermatitis. Photodermatol. 1984;1(2):65-75. View abstract
  • Kiistala, R., Makinen-Kiljunen, S., Heikkinen, K., Rinne, J., and Haahtela, T. Occupational allergic rhinitis and contact urticaria caused by bishop's weed (Ammi majus). Allergy 1999;54(6):635-639. View abstract
  • Ossenkoppele, P. M., van der Sluis, W. G., and van Vloten, W. A. [Phototoxic dermatitis following the use of Ammi majus fruit for vitiligo]. Ned.Tijdschr.Geneeskd. 3-16-1991;135(11):478-480. View abstract
  • Singh, U. P., Singh, D. P., Maurya, S., Maheshwari, R., Singh, M., Dubey, R. S., and Singh, R. B. Investigation on the phenolics of some spices having pharmacotherapeuthic properties. J Herb Pharmacother 2004;4(4):27-42. View abstract
  • Shlosberg, A. and Egyed, M. N. Examples of poisonous plants in Israel of importance to animals and man. Arch Toxicol Suppl 1983;6:194-196. View abstract
disclaimer: Natural Standard Bottom Line Monograph, Copyright © 2011 (www.naturalstandard.com). Commercial distribution prohibited. This monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. You should consult with a qualified healthcare provider before making decisions about therapies and/or health conditions. disclaimer: While some complementary and alternative techniques have been studied scientifically, high-quality data regarding safety, effectiveness, and mechanism of action are limited or controversial for most therapies. Whenever possible, it is recommended that practitioners be licensed by a recognized professional organization that adheres to clearly published standards. In addition, before starting a new technique or engaging a practitioner, it is recommended that patients speak with their primary healthcare provider(s). Potential benefits, risks (including financial costs), and alternatives should be carefully considered. The below monograph is designed to provide historical background and an overview of clinically-oriented research, and neither advocates for or against the use of a particular therapy. disclaimer: The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)



Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)
 
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