advertisement
Updated 18 February 2013

Bellis perennis (daisy)

Bellis perennis is a common European species of daisy. Although many other related plants are also called daisy, Bellis perennis is often considered the archetypal species. It is sometimes called common daisy or English daisy. It is native to western, central, and northern Europe, but is commonly found as an invasive plant in North America.

0

RELATED TERMS

Apigenin glycosides, Arnica montana, Asteraceae (family), asterogenic acid glycosides, bairnwort, bayogenin, Bellidis flos, Bellis sylvestris, bellissaponin, Bellorita, besysaponin, bisdesmosidic glycosides, bruisewort, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L., common daisy, Compositae (family), consolida, daisy, day's eye, dog daisy, English daisy, European daisy, flavonoids, flavonol glycosides, G©nsebl©mchen (German), glycosides, hen and chickens, Herb Margaret, La Paquerette (French), lawn daisy, little daisy, Madeliefje (Netherlands), Marguerite, Maslieben (German), Maya, meadow daisy, monodesmosidic glycosides, oxeye daisy, polyacetylenes, polygalacic acid, red daisy, saponins, Sedmikr©ska chudobka (Czech), triterpenoid glycosides, triterpenoid saponins, virgaureasaponin, wild daisy.

Note: Daisy is also the common name for oxeye daisy, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L., another weedy species found in fields and along roadsides throughout the United States. This species is native to Europe and Asia, and has also been naturalized as a weed in North America.

BACKGROUND

Bellis perennis is a common European species of daisy. Although many other related plants are also called daisy, Bellis perennis is often considered the archetypal species. It is sometimes called common daisy or English daisy. It is native to western, central, and northern Europe, but is commonly found as an invasive plant in North America.

The medicinal properties of Bellis perennis have been recorded in herbals as far back as the 16th century. John Gerard, the 16th century herbalist, recommended English daisy as a catarrh (inflammation of mucous membrane) cure, as a remedy for heavy menstruation, migraine, and to promote healing of bruises and swellings.

Infusions of the flowers and leaves have been used to treat a wide range of other disorders including rhinitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and liver and kidney disorders. An insect repellent spray has also been made from an infusion of the leaves. A strong decoction of the roots has been recommended for the long-term treatment of both scurvy and eczema, and a mild decoction may ease complaints of the respiratory tract.

Bellis perennis has also been used traditionally for treating wounds. Chewing the fresh leaves is said to be a cure for mouth ulcers. In homeopathy, Bellis perennis is often used in combination with Arnica montana to treat bruising and trauma.

Common daisy is widely used in homeopathy, but is currently only rarely used in herbal medicine. Although homeopathic dosing is generally recognized as safe (GRAS; U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) designation), there is a lack of available scientific evidence to support claims for effectiveness related to the use of Bellis perennis. More research is needed in this area. Recent research has explored the possibility of using the plant in HIV therapy.

EVIDENCE TABLE

Conditions

Uses
disclaimer: These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
Grade*

Bleeding (postpartum, mild)

Homeopathic Bellis perennis has been used for bruising, bleeding, and recovery from surgery. Additional study of Bellis perennis alone is needed to make a firm recommendation.

C

*Key to grades: A: Strong scientific evidence for this use; B: Good scientific evidence for this use; C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use; D: Fair scientific evidence against this use (it may not work); F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likely does not work).

TRADITION

The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below. Analgesic (pain reliever), antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antitussive (suppresses coughs), arthritis, astringent, blood purifier, breast cancer, bronchitis, bruises, burns, bursitis (inflammation of bursa), childbirth (cesarean sections, episiotomy), cancer, catarrh (inflammation of mucous membrane), circadian clock acceleration, concussions, demulcent (soothes inflammation), digestion enhancement, diuretic, dysmenorrheal (painful menstruation), eczema, edema (post-operative and post-traumatic), emollient (soothes skin), expectorant (expels phlegm), fractures, HIV support, inflammation (tenosynovitis, styloiditis), insect repellent, jet lag, joint disorders (blood in joint), joint inflammation (epicondyle), joint problems (dislocations), kidney disorders, laxative, liver disorders, menorrhagia (heavy menstrual bleeding), migraines, mouth ulcers, ophthalmologic (eye) uses, osteoarthritis, periarthritis humeroscapularis, periodontitis / gingivitis, pneumonia, post-surgical recovery (plastic surgery), purgative, rheumatism, scurvy, skin diseases, soft-tissue injury (acute), sports injuries, sprains, tissue healing after surgery (abdominal), tonic, trauma (pelvic organ), wounds.

DOSING

disclaimer: The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.

Adults (18 years and older)

Based on available scientific evidence, there is no proven safe or effective dose for Bellis perennis. One cup of tea made from 2 teaspoons of dried Bellis perennis herb steeped in 300 milliliters of boiling water for 20 minutes, and then strained, has been taken two to four times daily.

Typical homeopathic doses used are 1 or 2 (6C or 30C potency) tablets dissolved on the tongue. For general acute conditions, one dose every two hours repeated for a maximum of six doses has been used. For less acute conditions (e.g. seasonal or chronic), one dose three times a day between meals for no more than one month has been used.

Children (younger than 18 years)

Based on available scientific evidence, there is no proven safe or effective dose for Bellis perennis. In general, 1 or 2 homeopathic 6C or 30C potency tablets dissolved on the tongue have been used. For general acute conditions, one dose every two hours for up to six doses has been used. For less acute conditions (e.g. seasonal or chronic), one dose three times a day between meals for no more than one month has been used.

SAFETY

disclaimer: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies

Avoid in individuals sensitive or allergic to Bellis perennis products or any of their ingredients. Respiratory allergies have occurred in sensitive individuals.

Side Effects and Warnings

In general, Bellis perennis appears to be well tolerated when used at homeopathic doses.

As an herb, however, Bellis perennis may affect the clotting cascade, resulting in blood clotting. Common daisy may also result in stunted growth, although there is a lack of scientific evidence supporting this.

Patients at risk for coagulation disorders such as strokes or blood clots, or patients with anemia should use cautiously.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Bellis perennis is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence. Avoid use at traditional herbal doses during pregnancy and breastfeeding because of the possibility of growth retardation in the fetus and infant.

INTERACTIONS

disclaimer: Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

Interactions with Drugs

Bellis perennis may affect coagulation and it is unclear how this herb may interact with medications that may increase the risk of bleeding. Examples include aspirin, anticoagulants ("blood thinners") such as warfarin (Coumadin©) or heparin, anti-platelet drugs such as clopidogrel (Plavix©), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) such as ibuprofen (Motrin©, Advil©) or naproxen (Naprosyn©, Aleve©). Caution is advised.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

Bellis perennis may affect coagulation, and it is unclear how this herb may interact with herbs and supplements that may increase the risk of bleeding. Caution is advised when taking with herbs and supplements that may increase the risk of bleeding, such as garlic or Ginkgo biloba.

ATTRIBUTION

This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).

  • Avato P, Vitali C, Mongelli P, et al. Antimicrobial activity of polyacetylenes from Bellis perennis and their synthetic derivatives. Planta Med 1997;63(6):503-507. View abstract
  • Bader G, Kulhanek Y, Ziegler-Bohme H. [The antifungal action of polygalacic acid glycosides]. Pharmazie 1990;45(8):618-620. View abstract
  • Desevedavy C, Amoros M, Girre L, et al. Antifungal agents: in vitro and in vivo antifungal extract from the common daisy, Bellis perennis. J Nat.Prod. 1989;52(1):184-185. View abstract
  • Glensk M, Wray V, Nimtz M, et al. Triterpenoid saponins of Bellis perennis. Scientia Pharmaceutica 2001;69-73.
  • Gudej J, Nazaruk J. Flavonol glycosides from the flowers of Bellis perennis. Fitoterapia 2001;72(7):839-840. View abstract
  • Guneser S, Atici A, Cengizler I, et al. Inhalant allergens: as a cause of respiratory allergy in east Mediterranean area, Turkey. Allergol.Immunopathol.(Madr.) 1996;24(3):116-119. View abstract
  • Nazaruk J, Gudej J. Apigenin glycosides from the flowers of Bellis perennis L. Acta Pol.Pharm 2000;57(2):129-130. View abstract
  • Nazaruk J, Gudej J. Qualitative and quantitative chromatographic investigation of flavonoids in Bellis perennis L. Acta Pol.Pharm 2001;58(5):401-404. View abstract
  • Oberbaum M, Galoyan N, Lerner-Geva L, et al. The effect of the homeopathic remedies Arnica montana and Bellis perennis on mild postpartum bleeding—a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study—preliminary results. Complement Ther.Med 2005;13(2):87-90. View abstract
  • Schopke T, Hiller K, Wray V, et al. Triterpenoid saponins from Bellis sylvestris, I. Structures of the major deacylsaponins. J Nat.Prod. 1994;57(9):1279-1282. View abstract
  • Schopke T, Wray V, Kunath A, et al. Bayogenin and asterogenic acid glycosides from Bellis perennis. Phytochemistry 1992;31(7):2555-2557. View abstract
  • Schopke T, Wray V, Kunath A, et al. Virgaureasaponin 2 from Bellis perennis L. Die Pharmazie 1-1-1990;45:870-871.
  • Siatka T, Kasparova M. [Seasonal changes in the hemolytic effects of the head of Bellis perennis L.]. Ceska.Slov.Farm 2003;52(1):39-41. View abstract
  • Siatka T, Kasparova M, Dusek J. Seasonal variation in haemolytic activity of Bellis perennis L. leaves and roots. Folia Pharmaceutica Universitatis Carolinae 2002;85-89.
disclaimer: Natural Standard Bottom Line Monograph, Copyright © 2011 (www.naturalstandard.com). Commercial distribution prohibited. This monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. You should consult with a qualified healthcare provider before making decisions about therapies and/or health conditions. disclaimer: While some complementary and alternative techniques have been studied scientifically, high-quality data regarding safety, effectiveness, and mechanism of action are limited or controversial for most therapies. Whenever possible, it is recommended that practitioners be licensed by a recognized professional organization that adheres to clearly published standards. In addition, before starting a new technique or engaging a practitioner, it is recommended that patients speak with their primary healthcare provider(s). Potential benefits, risks (including financial costs), and alternatives should be carefully considered. The below monograph is designed to provide historical background and an overview of clinically-oriented research, and neither advocates for or against the use of a particular therapy. disclaimer: The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)



Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)
 
NEXT ON HEALTH24X
advertisement

Read Health24’s Comments Policy

Comment on this story
0 comments
Comments have been closed for this article.

Live healthier

Watch out! »

Gross fungal infections you can pick up at the gym

You go to gym to exercise. But make sure the only thing you pick up is a dumbbell and not one of these gross fungal infections.

Holiday health »

Your 10-step asthma holiday checklist

Don’t let asthma ruin your summer holiday. Whether you are travelling or embracing the summer at home, make sure you plan ahead.