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Updated 18 February 2013

Bay leaf (Laurus nobilis)

Bay leaf is primarily used to flavor foods, and it is used by chefs of ethnic cuisines, from Italian to Thai. It is also frequently used in salt-free seasonings.

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RELATED TERMS

Alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone moiety, bay laurel, bay tree, costunolide, daphne, dehydrocostus lactone, Grecian laurel, guaianolides, Lauraceae (family), laurel, laurel oil, Laurus, Laurus nobilis L., Mediterranean bay, Mediterranean laurel, noble laurel, p-menthane hydroperoxide, reynosin, Roman laurel, santamarine, sesquiterpenes, sweet bay, sweet laurel, true bay, trypanocidal terpenoids, zaluzanin D.

Note: Bay leaf (Laurus nobilis) may be confused with California bay leaf (Umbellularia californica), also known as "California laurel" or "Oregon myrtle," or Indian bay leaf (Cinnamoma tamala). This monograph only covers bay leaf (Laurus nobilis).

BACKGROUND

Bay leaf is primarily used to flavor foods, and it is used by chefs of ethnic cuisines, from Italian to Thai. It is also frequently used in salt-free seasonings.

Bay leaf is thought to be useful for gastric ulcers, high blood sugar, migraines, and infections. Bay leaves and berries have been used for their astringent, diaphoretic (promotes sweating), carminative (promotes digestion), digestive, and stomachic (tones and strengthens the stomach) properties. In the Middle Ages bay leaf was believed to induce abortions. Traditionally, the berries of the bay tree were used to treat furuncles. The leaf essential oil of Laurus nobilis has been used as an antiepileptic remedy in Iranian traditional medicine.

Currently, there is not enough scientific evidence to draw any firm conclusions about the medicinal safety, effectiveness or dosing of bay leaf.

EVIDENCE TABLE

Conditions

Uses
disclaimer: These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
Grade*

*Key to grades: A: Strong scientific evidence for this use; B: Good scientific evidence for this use; C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use; D: Fair scientific evidence against this use (it may not work); F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likely does not work).

TRADITION

The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below. Abortifacient (inducing abortion), amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), analgesic (pain-reliever), antibacterial, anticonvulsant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiseptic, appetite stimulant, arthritis, astringent, bile flow stimulant, bronchitis, cancer, carminative (promotes digestion), colic, dandruff, diabetes, diaphoretic (promotes sweating), digestive, diuretic, ear pain, emetic (induces vomiting), emmenagogue (promotes menstruation), food uses, furuncles (skin boil), hysteria, influenza, insecticide, leukemia, migraine headaches, narcotic, nightmares, rheumatism, sprains, stimulant, stomach ulcers, wound healing.

DOSING

disclaimer: The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.

Adults (18 years and older)

There is not enough scientific evidence to safely recommend bay leaf for use in adults.

Children (younger than 18 years)

There is not enough scientific evidence to safely recommend bay leaf for use in children.

SAFETY

disclaimer: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies

Individuals with a known allergy to bay leaf (Laurus nobilis), its constituents, and related plants in the Lauraceae family as well as the Compositae/Asteraceae family should not use bay leaf. Contact dermatitis and occupational asthma have been reported.

Side Effects and Warnings

Overall, bay leaf has very few adverse effects, and is likely safe when consumed in amounts used in foods. However, it may cause contact dermatitis and occupational asthma. Bay leaves may become lodged in the gastrointestinal tract, causing tears or blockages. These impacted leaves may also obstruct breathing.

Other reported side effects include hand and face eczema and airborne contact dermatitis.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Bay leaf is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to lack of available scientific evidence.

INTERACTIONS

disclaimer: Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

Interactions with Drugs

Alcohol extracts of bay leaf may interact with ACE inhibitor drugs. Caution is advised.

Bay leaf essential oil may have anticonvulsant effects. Individuals using bay leaf with other medications with anticonvulsant effects should consult with a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist.

Bay leaf essential oil may cause sedation and motor impairment. Caution is advised when using in combination with other medications that have sedative effects, such as chamomile.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

Bay leaf essential oil may have anticonvulsant effects. Individuals using bay leaf with other herbs and supplements with anticonvulsant effects should consult with a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist.

Bay leaf essential oil may cause sedation and motor impairment. Caution is advised when using in combination with other herbs and supplements that have sedative effects, such as chamomile.

ATTRIBUTION

This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).

  • Ferreira A, Proenca C, Serralheiro ML, et al. The in vitro screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antioxidant activity of medicinal plants from Portugal. J Ethnopharmacol. 4-28-2006. View abstract
  • Hibasami H, Yamada Y, Moteki H, et al. Sesquiterpenes (costunolide and zaluzanin D) isolated from laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) induce cell death and morphological change indicative of apoptotic chromatin condensation in leukemia HL-60 cells. Int J Mol.Med 2003;12(2):147-151. View abstract
  • Komiya T, Yamada Y, Moteki H, et al. Hot water soluble sesquiterpenes [anhydroperoxy-costunolide and 3-oxoeudesma-1,4(15),11(13)triene-12,6alpha-olide] isolated from laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) induce cell death and morphological change indicative of apoptotic chromatin condensation in leukemia cells. Oncol.Rep. 2004;11(1):85-88. View abstract
  • Matsuda H, Shimoda H, Uemura T, et al. Preventive effect of sesquiterpenes from bay leaf on blood ethanol elevation in ethanol-loaded rat: structure requirement and suppression of gastric emptying. Bioorg.Med Chem.Lett. 9-20-1999;9(18):2647-2652. View abstract
  • Moteki H, Hibasami H, Yamada Y, et al. Specific induction of apoptosis by 1,8-cineole in two human leukemia cell lines, but not a in human stomach cancer cell line. Oncol.Rep. 2002;9(4):757-760. View abstract
  • Nayak S, Nalabothu P, Sandiford S, et al. Evaluation of wound healing activity of Allamanda cathartica. L. and Laurus nobilis. L. extracts on rats. BMC.Complement Altern Med 2006;6:12. View abstract
  • Sayyah M, Saroukhani G, Peirovi A, et al. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of the leaf essential oil of Laurus nobilis Linn. Phytother Res 2003;17(7):733-736. View abstract
  • Sayyah M, Valizadeh J, Kamalinejad M. Anticonvulsant activity of the leaf essential oil of Laurus nobilis against pentylenetetrazole- and maximal electroshock-induced seizures. Phytomedicine. 2002;9(3):212-216. View abstract
  • Simic A, Sokovic MD, Ristic M, et al. The chemical composition of some Lauraceae essential oils and their antifungal activities. Phytother Res 2004;18(9):713-717. View abstract
  • Simic M, Kundakovic T, Kovacevic N. Preliminary assay on the antioxidative activity of Laurus nobilis extracts. Fitoterapia 2003;74(6):613-616. View abstract
  • Skok P. Dried bay leaf: an unusual cause of upper gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage. Endoscopy 1998;30(3):S40-S41. View abstract
  • Soylu EM, Soylu S, Kurt S. Antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of various plants against tomato late blight disease agent Phytophthora infestans. Mycopathologia 2006;161(2):119-128. View abstract
  • Tsang TK, Flais MJ, et al. Duodenal obstruction secondary to bay leaf impaction. Ann Intern Med 4-20-1999;130(8):701-702. View abstract
  • Uchiyama N, Matsunaga K, Kiuchi F, et al. Trypanocidal terpenoids from Laurus nobilis L. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2002;50(11):1514-1516. View abstract
  • Van der Veen JE, De Graaf C, Van Dis SJ, et al. Determinants of salt use in cooked meals in The Netherlands: attitudes and practices of food preparers. Eur J Clin Nutr 1999;53(5):388-394. View abstract
disclaimer: Natural Standard Bottom Line Monograph, Copyright © 2011 (www.naturalstandard.com). Commercial distribution prohibited. This monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. You should consult with a qualified healthcare provider before making decisions about therapies and/or health conditions. disclaimer: While some complementary and alternative techniques have been studied scientifically, high-quality data regarding safety, effectiveness, and mechanism of action are limited or controversial for most therapies. Whenever possible, it is recommended that practitioners be licensed by a recognized professional organization that adheres to clearly published standards. In addition, before starting a new technique or engaging a practitioner, it is recommended that patients speak with their primary healthcare provider(s). Potential benefits, risks (including financial costs), and alternatives should be carefully considered. The below monograph is designed to provide historical background and an overview of clinically-oriented research, and neither advocates for or against the use of a particular therapy. disclaimer: The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)



Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)
 
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