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Updated 18 February 2013

Baikal skullcap (Scutellaria barbata)

Baikal skullcap (Scutellaria barbata) is a plant native to southern China and all of Korea. In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), it is used as an anti-inflammatory, diuretic, and antitumor agent, especially in liver diseases such as hepatitis and liver cancer. In Western herbalism, it is better known as an ingredient in PC-SPES. High quality human study is lacking,

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RELATED TERMS

Apigenin, baicalin, ban-ji-ryun (Korean), banjiryun (Korean), ban-zhi-lian (Chinese), barbatin A, barbatin B, barbatin C, benzyaldehyde, berberine, carthamidin, flavonoidglycoside, flavonoids, Herba Scutellariae barbatae, hexahydrofarnesylacetone, isocarthamidin, Lamiaceae (family), luteolin, menthol, neo-clerodane diterpenoids, PC-SPES, pheophorbide A, resveratrol, SBJ, scutebarbatine B, scutellarein, Scutelleria baicalensis, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Scutellaria bardata, Scutellaria barbata D. Don, Scutellaria rivularis Wall., scutellarin, wogonin.

Note: Avoid confusion between Baikal skullcap (Scutellaria barbata) and Scutellaria lateriflora, which is known as scullcap.

BACKGROUND

Baikal skullcap (Scutellaria barbata) is a plant native to southern China and all of Korea. In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), it is used as an anti-inflammatory, diuretic, and antitumor agent, especially in liver diseases such as hepatitis and liver cancer. In Western herbalism, it is better known as an ingredient in PC-SPES. High quality human study is lacking,

WARNING: PC-SPES HAS BEEN RECALLED FROM THE U.S. MARKET AND SHOULD NOT BE USED.

There is little safety information available from clinical trials using Baikal skullcap. However, BZL101 (an aqueous Baikal skullcap extract) administered short term to patients with advanced breast cancer showed no serious side effects other than nausea, diarrhea, headache, flatulence, vomiting, constipation, and fatigue.

EVIDENCE TABLE

Conditions

Uses
disclaimer: These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
Grade*

Cancer

Although the outcomes of early studies are promising, high quality clinical studies are needed in this area before a recommendation can be made.

C

*Key to grades: A: Strong scientific evidence for this use; B: Good scientific evidence for this use; C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use; D: Fair scientific evidence against this use (it may not work); F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likely does not work).

TRADITION

The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below. Allergies, anemia, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, diuretic, hepatitis, high cholesterol, liver diseases, liver protection, myocardial ischemia (insufficient blood flow to the heart), neurological trauma, sedative, stroke.

DOSING

disclaimer: The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.

Adults (over 18 years old)

There is no proven safe or effective dose for Baikal skullcap in adults.

Children (under 18 years old)

There is no proven safe or effective dose for Baikal skullcap in children.

SAFETY

disclaimer: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies

Avoid in people with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to Baikal skullcap (Scutellaria barbata), its constituents, or members of the Lamiaceae family.

Side Effects and Warnings

Baikal skullcap is an ingredient in PC-SPES, a product that has been recalled from the U.S. market and should not be used.

Adverse effects may include nausea, diarrhea, flatulence, vomiting, constipation, fatigue, and headache.

Use cautiously in patients taking sedatives and/or operating heavy machinery.

Use cautiously in patients taking therapies for cancer, especially cyclophosphamide.

Use cautiously in patients taking therapies broken down by the liver.

Avoid in patients who are pregnant or breastfeeding, due to a lack of scientific evidence.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Baikal skullcap is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence.

INTERACTIONS

disclaimer: Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

Interactions with Drugs

Scutellaria baicalensis Georgii extract may help treat 5-fluorouracil-induced bone marrow damage.

Caution is advised in patients taking antibiotics, antifungals, antihistamine medications, antiviral agents, and anti-inflammatory medications, due to possible additive effects.

Scutellaria baicalensis radix extract may increase or decrease serum lipid levels. Use cautiously with cholesterol-lowering medications, due to possible additive effects.

Caution is advised in patients with cancer or taking anti-cancer medications, due to possible additive effects.

Baikal skullcap may have antioxidant activity. Caution is advised in patients taking antioxidant agents, due to possible additive effects.

Baikal skullcap may interact with drugs that are broken down by the liver.

Baikal skullcap is used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as a diuretic.

Baikal skullcap may cause drowsiness and have additive effects with other sedatives.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

Use cautiously with herbs and supplements with antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, antihistamine activity, anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant, and antiviral activity, due to possible additive effects.

Scutellaria baicalensis radix extract may increase or decrease cholesterol levels. Use cautiously with cholesterol-lowering herbs and supplements due to possible additive effects.

Use cautiously in patients with cancer and in those taking herbs or supplements to treat cancer.

Baikal skullcap may reduce the berberine content in berberine-containing herbs.

Baikal skullcap may interact with herbs and supplements that are broken down by the liver.

Baikal skullcap is used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as a diuretic.

Scutellaria baicalensis dry extract and baicalin may interact with hematological (blood) agents.

Baikal skullcap and Oldenlandia diffusa in combination exhibited additive antimutagenic effects.

PC-SPES contains Baikal skullcap, and thus additive effects may occur in theory.

Baikal skullcap may cause additive drowsy effects when take with sedatives. Caution is advised if driving or operating machinery.

ATTRIBUTION

This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).

  • Chan JY, Tang PM, Hon PM, et al. Pheophorbide a, a major antitumor component purified from Scutellaria barbata, induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Planta Med 2006;72(1):28-33. View abstract
  • Goh D, Lee YH, Ong ES. Inhibitory effects of a chemically standardized extract from Scutellaria barbata in human colon cancer cell lines, LoVo. J Agric.Food Chem 10-19-2005;53(21):8197-8204. View abstract
  • Kim JH, Lee EO, Lee HJ, et al. Caspase activation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase/Akt inhibition were involved in luteolin-induced apoptosis in Lewis lung carcinoma cells. Ann.N Y.Acad.Sci 2006;1090:147-160. View abstract
  • Rugo H, Shtivelman E, Perez A, et al. Phase I trial and antitumor effects of BZL101 for patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 11-17-2006. View abstract
  • Suh SJ, Yoon JW, Lee TK, et al. Chemoprevention of Scutellaria bardata on human cancer cells and tumorigenesis in skin cancer. Phytother Res 2007;21(2):135-141. View abstract
  • Yin X, Zhou J, Jie C, et al. Anticancer activity and mechanism of Scutellaria barbata extract on human lung cancer cell line A549. Life Sci 9-17-2004;75(18):2233-2244. View abstract
disclaimer: Natural Standard Bottom Line Monograph, Copyright © 2011 (www.naturalstandard.com). Commercial distribution prohibited. This monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. You should consult with a qualified healthcare provider before making decisions about therapies and/or health conditions. disclaimer: While some complementary and alternative techniques have been studied scientifically, high-quality data regarding safety, effectiveness, and mechanism of action are limited or controversial for most therapies. Whenever possible, it is recommended that practitioners be licensed by a recognized professional organization that adheres to clearly published standards. In addition, before starting a new technique or engaging a practitioner, it is recommended that patients speak with their primary healthcare provider(s). Potential benefits, risks (including financial costs), and alternatives should be carefully considered. The below monograph is designed to provide historical background and an overview of clinically-oriented research, and neither advocates for or against the use of a particular therapy. disclaimer: The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)



Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)
 
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