There are many different ways. For mild to moderate pain, oral painkillers will be sufficient. More severe pain is traditionally treated with injections of morphine or other opioids. If appropriate, local anaesthetics can be used to numb the nerves that transmit the pain from the operation area (e.g. epidural, nerve bundle to the leg or arm). Small surgical cuts, like removal of a breast lump, can be infiltrated with local anaesthetic.
Ideally a so called multi-modal approach is used: instead of trying to kill the pain with a lot of only one drug, a combination of a little bit of different drugs is used, which improves efficacy and decreases the risk for side-effects.
- The "traditional" way of post-operative pain relief: Injections of morphine or another opioid
- Local anaesthetic for post-operative pain control
- The epidural route for post-operative pain relief.
Muscle cramps=mineral deficiency?
Arthritis Foundation of South Africa
Multiple Sclerosis South Africa
The South African Society of Physiotherapy