09 December 2014

Pre-eclampsia during pregnancy may cause autism in babies

Children are twice as likely to suffer from autism or other developmental delays if their mother suffered from pre-eclampsia during pregnancy.


Children born to women who suffered a high blood pressure condition called pre-eclampsia during pregnancy are twice as likely to have autism or other developmental delays, US researchers said Monday.

The study in the journal JAMA Paediatrics, a journal of the American Medical Association, also found that the more severe the pre-eclampsia, the higher the likelihood of autism.

The research involved more than 1,000 children aged two to three in northern California. All of their mothers had confirmed diagnoses of pre-eclampsia, and scientists compared data about those developing normally to those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or other developmental delays.

"We found significant associations between pre-eclampsia and ASD that increased with severity," said senior author Cheryl Walker, assistant professor in the department of obstetrics and gynaecology at the University of California, Davis.

"We also observed a significant association between severe pre-eclampsia and developmental delay."

Read: Pre-eclampsia increases cerebral palsy risk

Autism spectrum disorder affects as many as one in 88 children in the United States.

The exact causes of the developmental disorder are unknown, with research pointing to genes, the environmental, or both.

Autism leads to difficulties in social, emotional and communication skills, and has no known cure.

Some past research has suggested that pre-eclampsia - which causes high blood pressure late in pregnancy and high levels of protein in the urine, as well as seizures in severe cases - could be linked to autism, perhaps by depriving the foetus of nutrients and oxygen.

"While single studies cannot establish causality, the cumulative evidence supports efforts to reduce pre-eclampsia and diminish severity, to improve neonatal outcomes," Walker said.

Read more:
High blood pressure during pregnancy
Aspirin may reduce pre-eclampsia risk
Probiotics lower risk of pre-eclampsia

Image: Doctor measures blood pressure of pregnant woman from Shutterstock


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Dr Jacomien de Villiers qualified as a specialist physician at the University of Pretoria in 1995. She worked at various clinics at the Department of Internal Medicine, Steve Biko Hospital, these include General Internal Medicine, Hypertension, Diabetes and Cardiology. She has run a private practice since 2001, as well as a consultant post at the Endocrine Clinic of Steve Biko Hospital.

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