Apart from sexual behavioural change and prevention, the following bio-medical methods are used (or are being researched) to prevent HIV infection:
A microbicide is a substance that kills microscopic organisms such as viruses. Microbicides, in the form of a vaginal cream, would be a major factor in controlling the spread of HIV.
Many women are simply not in a position to insist that their partners use condoms because they fear rejection or a violent reaction from their partners if they do.
What women ideally therefore need is a non-barrier method which they themselves can apply and control without their partner’s knowledge.
Microbicides are currently being tested on women, but it is not on the market yet.