Eye Health

Eye disorders

Acute glaucoma

Acute angle-closure glaucoma, also simply called acute glaucoma, is a disease in which there are sudden increases in the pressure in the eye – intraocular pressure.

Cataracts - from Natural Standard

A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye that affects vision. Most cataracts are related to aging. Cataracts are very common in older people. The National Eye Institute (NEI) estimates that by age 80, more than half of all Americans either have a cataract or have had cataract surgery. Cataracts generally do not cause surface irritation or pain.

Duane syndrome

Duane syndrome is a congenital condition that affects the eye muscles, making it difficult for a person to move his/her eyes. Normally, the outward wall of each eye is attached to six different muscles. These muscles are attached (wired) to nerves, and the brain controls eye movements by sending messages to the eye muscles through these nerves. In patients with Duane syndrome, the nerves are not properly attached to one or more of the eye muscles, so the brain cannot fully control movement of the eye.

Conjunctivitis (pinkeye)

Conjunctivitis, also called "pinkeye" in the United States and "madras eye" in India, describes the inflammation or infection of the transparent membrane that lines the eyelid (conjunctiva) and part of the eyeball.


Retinoblastoma is a rare type of genetic eye cancer that occurs in young children. Small tumors develop in the retina, which is located at the back of the eye. The retina sends visual images to the brain where they are perceived. These tumors may cause the pupils to appear white instead of black. Although most people only have retinoblastoma in one eye, sometimes tumors develop in both eyes.


Achromatopsia is a condition that leads to the inability to see color. About one in 30,000 people in the United States are affected with achromatopsia. This condition is much rarer than other forms of color blindness, such as red-green color blindness and X-linked color blindness.

Cystic eyelids-palmoplantar keratosis-hypodontia-hypotrichosis

Cystic eyelids-palmoplantar keratosis-hypodontia-hypotrichosis is one of several ectodermal dysplasias, disorders that affect the outer layer of a developing embryo. This layer, called the ectoderm, develops into the skin, teeth, eyes, nails, and hair. As its name suggests, this disease is characterized by cystic nodules on the eyelids, thickening of the skin on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet, missing teeth, and sparse, abnormal hair growth. In addition, people with this condition tend to have underdeveloped fingernails and toenails.

Ocular cellulitis

Cellulitis is an infection of soft tissues (like fat and muscle tissue). It can occur in any soft tissue, anywhere in the body.

Myasthenia gravis (MG)

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a chronic autoimmune disorder that occurs when the immune system malfunctions, causing the voluntary (skeletal) muscles to become weak. In Latin, myasthenia gravis literally means "grave muscle weakness."

Retinitis pigmentosa

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of eye diseases that affect the retina. The retina, which is located at the back of the eye, sends visual images to the brain where they are perceived. The cells in the retina that receive the visual images are called photoreceptors. There are two types of photoreceptors: rods (which are responsible for vision in low light) and cones (which are responsible for color vision and detail in high light).

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Megan Goodman qualified as an optometrist from the University of Johannesburg and is currently practising at Tygerberg Academic Hospital in Cape Town. She has recently completed a Masters degree in Clinical Epidemiology at Stellenbosch University. She has a keen interest in ocular pathology and evidence based medicine as well as contact lenses.

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