therapy and anti-depressants help lessen the severity of symptoms for people
with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) more than the medication alone,
according to a new study. In the case of people with moderately severe OCD
symptoms, the combination of so-called exposure and ritual prevention therapy
with antidepressants was more effective than the combination of anti-depressants
and anti-psychotic medications at reducing symptoms.
"This data strongly
suggests that OCD patients on (antidepressants) with clinically meaningful
symptoms should be first offered exposure and ritual prevention therapy to get
better still," Dr Helen Blair Simpson, the study's lead author from
Columbia Psychiatry in New York, told Reuters Health.
More on OCD
disorder is estimated to affect approximately 2.2 million American adults,
according to the National Institutes of Health. Symptoms of the condition
include obsessive thoughts and fears or compulsions to repeatedly perform the
The only drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for
the treatment of OCD is a group of antidepressants known as serotonin reuptake
inhibitors (SRIs) that raise levels of the brain chemical serotonin, which
improves communication between brain cells. Some people, however, still have
moderate symptoms after taking SRIs. For them, anti-psychotic medications may be
added to the treatment regimen, but research has found only about a third of
patients respond to that combination therapy.
Over the past few decades,
exposure and ritual prevention therapy has emerged as a promising treatment in
addition to SRIs. During exposure therapy, OCD patients are made to confront
their fears and taught to resist their compulsions. For example, an OCD patient
with a fear of germs might be told not to wash their hands so they can see that
nothing bad will happen.
For the new study, Simpson and Edna Foa from the
University of Pennsylvania randomly assigned 100 people who were on SRIs but
still experiencing moderate OCD symptoms to one of three groups. One group
received eight weeks of exposure therapy, another group received the
anti-psychotic medication risperid one and the other group took an inert placebo
At the beginning of the study, all participants scored about 26 or 27 on
a scale of 0 to 40 that measures OCD symptom severity, with higher numbers
representing worse symptoms. Scores between 24 and 31 are considered severe.
After eight weeks, the average symptom score of participants taking the placebo
pill or the antipsychotic alone fell to about 23, which is considered moderate
symptom severity. Those who went through exposure therapy, however, scored
about a 13 at the end of the study. Scores between 8 and 15 represent mild
Dr Kerry Ressler, who co-authored an editorial accompanying the new
study, said exposure therapy may work better because it specifically targets
the fear. "Therapy specifically targets the underlying problem whereas the
antipsychotic doesn't really target the problem – it just puts a Band-Aid over
the symptoms," Ressler from the Department of Psychiatry at Emory
University in Atlanta, said.
Simpson cautioned that people shouldn't rule out
antipsychotics altogether, because research suggests that those drugs do help
people with certain subsets of OCD, such as those who experience involuntary
But even for those people, she said exposure therapy may be a good
option. "Cognitive behavioural therapy or exposure and ritual prevention is
skill-based treatment... what it's really about is a therapist teaching you a
different way to handle your compulsions," Simpson said.