About COPD

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic lung disease. It is characterised by obstruction of airflow that cannot be fully reversed. Symptoms include breathing difficulty, cough, sputum production and wheezing.


Adenoviruses are medium-sized (90 to 100 nanometers) viruses that contain double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA consists of two strands of a series of nucleotides shaped like a twisted ladder. This structure is referred to as a double helix, and it contains an individual's genetic code.

Emphysema-like disease and HIV

Emphysema is an incurable condition that occurs when the walls between the air sacs in the lung lose their ability to stretch and recoil, causing shortness of breath. Some HIV patients develop a condition called emphysema-like disease, which causes similar symptoms. The main difference between these two conditions is that abnormal masses in the lungs, called cystic lesions, cause symptoms of emphysema-like disease.

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