01 June 2011

Asthmatic kids may have food allergy

Inner-city children with poorly controlled asthma or skin allergies may be more likely to have food allergies, a new study hints.


Inner-city children with poorly controlled asthma or skin allergies may be more likely to have food allergies, a new study hints.

Researchers found that among 228 inner-city New York children seen at their allergy clinic, 28% had a food allergy - with eggs, peanuts and milk being the prime culprits. By contrast, the rate of food allergy among US kids in general is only about 4%.

And a full 71% of kids in the study were sensitised to at least one food. That rate too is much higher than average.

Food allergies

Some of the children were tested for food allergies because they had symptoms. But most - 62% - had never had any obvious reaction to food. Instead, they were tested because they had asthma or eczema that was not responding well to medication.

The children in this study were patients at an allergy clinic, so they are not representative of inner-city children in general.

Still, the findings suggest that doctors who treat inner-city children with stubborn asthma or eczema "should have a high degree of suspicion for food allergy," senior researcher Dr Julie Wang said.

History of children's symptoms

In those cases, she said, doctors should get a detailed history of children's symptoms and refer families to an allergy specialist if necessary.

Dr Wang and her colleagues at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York reported their study in the Journal of Allergy & Clinical Immunology.

It's known that poor minority children, many of whom live in inner cities, have high rates of asthma and nasal allergies. An estimated 23% of Puerto Rican children from low-income families have asthma, as do 16% of poor African-American children, according to the US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention.

That compares with a national average of just over 9%.

Dr Wang said she is not aware of any studies that have looked at the prevalence of food allergies among inner-city children.

Rate of food allergy

The rates of food allergy and sensitisation in this study were much higher than the national norm: About 4% of US children younger than 18 have a food allergy, while food sensitisation affects an estimated 28% of children age five and younger - the age range where it is most common.

Nationally, food allergies are seen as a growing problem. In 2007, about three million school-aged children had a food allergy - up 18% from a decade before. And there is some evidence that children's emergency room visits for severe food reactions are on the upswing as well.

No-one is sure why the rate is rising.

One theory blames changes in children's diets. Another theory, known as the "hygiene hypothesis," holds that today's clean living may actually make some people's immune system more prone to attacking normally harmless substances.

Regardless of what's behind the trend, the research team says that when inner city children have skin rashes or asthma that can't be controlled with standard medicines, doctors should consider the possibility of food allergy - even if the kids don't show any of the usual reactions to food.  (Reuters Health/ May 2011)

Read more:
Why does flu trigger allergies?


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Dr Morris is the Principal Allergist at the Cape Town and Johannesburg Allergy Clinics with postgraduate diplomas in Allergology, Dermatology, Paediatrics and Family Medicine dealing with both adult and childhood allergies. obesity and diabetes societies and runs a trial centre for new drugs.

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