Home > Experts > Question Question Posted by: Sello | 2013/02/06 They called us terrorists yet they crossed borders to terrorise and ambush MK South African Defence Force (SADF) raids into Mozambique In the 1950s and 1960s the South African government intensified its clamp down on political activities in the country. In 1950 the Communist Party of South Africa (CPSA) was declared an illegal organisation according to the Suppression of Communism Act, No. 44 of 1950 which came into force on 17 July 1950. Subsequent to this other laws, such as the Public Safety Act and the Criminal Law Amendment Act No 8, were passed in 1953 in response to the Defiance Campaign. These laws gave the government the power to declare a state of emergency and to detain, imprison, whip and fine people. The turning point came in 1960 when the police shot and killed unarmed civilians demonstrating inSharpeville. Protests spread to other parts of the country such as Cape Town and Durban. Subsequent to the protests, the government declared a state of emergency on 30 March 1960 and political organizations such as the African National Congress (ANC) and the Pan Africanist Congress(PAC) were banned under the Unlawful Organisation Act. The violent response of the government forced liberation movements to use more militant methods of waging the struggle against apartheid. Political activists who escaped being banned, detained or imprisoned went into exile. Their aim was twofold: firstly, to establish a platform where they could voice their cause to the international community and secondly, to establish bases or obtain support for military training for cadres. Once liberation movements were given permission by various countries to operate, more people left the country for military training. In addition, two significant developments took place in Southern Africa in the mid-70s. Mozambique gained independence on 25 June 1975 and later in the year Angola gained its independence from Portuguese colonial rule on 11 November 1975. Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) remained under white minority rule until 1980. As these countries made their ground available for use by the ANC and PAC, the crumbling of white minority rule around South Africa removed the ‘ sense of security’ that was enjoyed by Pretoria. The South African government policy on cross border raids was not always uniform it evolved over time, within the structures of the National Party (NP), from engagement to outright force. The NP, under BJ Voster, initially engaged on a policy of soothing relations with African states which supported the international isolation of South Africa because of its policy of apartheid. Vorster’ s policy sparked infighting within the NP. Pfister has categorised the South African government policy into four. One was outward movement which involved engagement of African states beyond Southern Africa after 1967, dialogue initiated by the military around 1966 with Francophone West African states, secret diplomacy practiced by the Department of Information from 1972 and the detente which related to South Africa’ s attempts to deal with the changing situation in Southern Africa particularly between 1974 and 1975. Significantly, during this period Vorster adopted the dé tente approach towards countries in Southern Africa. (Pfister R, (2005), Apartheid South Africa and African states: from pariah to middle power, 1961 to 1994 (New York), pp.39) After government security forces violently put down the student uprising in 1976, and proscribed 18 other organisations on 19 October 1977, more young people left the country to join liberation movement in exile, mainly the ANC, for military training. These developments alarmed the South African government which then began its campaign of political destabilisation of the region and cross border raids. In the 1980’ s the President of South Africa, and the leader of the NP, P. W. Botha, discarded the dé tente policy pursued under Vorster and launched his “ Total Strategy” in response to what he saw as the “ Total Onslaught” of communism within the country and from neighbouring states. On 26 November 1980, Botha warned South Africa’ s neighbours that continued support for ANC guerrillas would result in cross border raids by the SADF. Subsequently, the government intensified cross border raids in the 1980s in Mozambique, Lesotho, Swaziland, Botswana, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The South African Defence Force (SADF), through the State Security Council (SSC), carried out a number of attacks on ANC houses in Mozambique over a period of three years. Cross border raids by the SADF took three basic forms. One of the methods used was assassinations through car and parcel bombs - attacks were either made on ANC offices or alternatively the bomb was sent directly to the ANC representative. Another method was sending in commandos across borders - this involved gathering of intelligence on liberation movement activities and then sending in a group of commandos from the SADF to destroy infrastructure and kill political activists. Lastly, the government allowed abductions or kidnappings of political activists who were then secretly transported back to South Africa for interrogation or trial. The activists could also be turned into an askari (an agent of the government masquerading as a member of the liberation movement). On the morning of 30 January 1981 SADF commandos drove 70kms across the South African-Mozambican border to Matola, a suburb in Maputo. The suburb contained a number of houses that served as safe houses or operational bases for MK. They attacked and destroyed three houses and killed 16 South Africans and a Portuguese national, Jose Ramos, who bore a striking resemblance to Joe Slovo. For brief period the SADF celebrated the death Slovo before news of the true identity of the Portuguese national emerged. At one of the houses, the ANC fought back and killed two commandos and injuring others. One of the commandos killed was a British mercenary named Robert Lewis Hutchinson who had served in the British Army and the Rhodesian Special Air Service before moving to South Africa. Hutchinson was wearing a helmet with a swastika and a slogan which read ‘ Sieg Heil’ , which was a Nazi salute. The other commando was Ian Suttill who shared a similar military background with Hutchinson. The MK members who were killed include Lancelot Hadebe, Mandla Daka, Daniel Molokisi, Steven Ngcobo, Vusumzi Ngwema, Thabang Bookolane, Krishna Rabilal, Themba Dimba, Motso Mokgabudi, Collin Khumalo, Levinson Mankankaza, Albert Mahutso and William Khanyile. The president of the ANC, Oliver Tambo, in the company of Mozambican president, Samora Machel, addressed mourners on 14 February 1981, at the funeral of those who were killed. As a result, the day was declared the Day of Friendship between South African and Mozambique. The January 1981 Matola raid was not the only raid conducted by the SADF. On 29 May 1983 jets deployed by the South African Airforce carried out ‘ Operation Skerwe’ and attacked Matola and Liberdade, suburbs of Maputo. After the raid the SADF claimed it had destroyed ANC bases and killed 41 ''ANC terrorists''. The raid had however failed as it killed three workers arriving for work at the Somopal jam factory. At least 40 other people, mostly women and children, were injured by shrapnel. The SADF justified the raid by stating that it was retaliation for the explosion of bombs planted by the ANC in Pretoria which killed 16 people and injured 130 people on 20 May 1983. Two of the targets for the explosions were the South African Air Force Headquarters and the Military Intelligence and Naval Offices in downtown Pretoria. Other raids into Mozambique In addition, there were other commando raids and assassinations conducted in other parts of Mozambique by the SADF. On 17 March 1981 the SADF sneaked into Mozambique and went to the resort of Ponta do Ouro. The primary purpose was test whether the Mozambican government had increased its security patrols along its border after the Matola raid in January 1981. A clash with the Mozambican army ensued resulting in the death of one member of the SADF. On 17 August 1982 Ruth First was killed by a parcel bomb at Eduardo Mondlane University. She was research Director for the Centre for African Studies and was active in promoting the relationship between the ANC and Frente de Libertaç ã o de Moç ambique(FRELIMO), the ruling party of Mozambique. First was also the wife of Joe Slovo, a senior member of the SACP and ANC. On 17 October 1983 SADF commandos bombed the ANC office in Maputo and inured five people. One of SADF commandos Wynand Petrus du Toit was caught later and admitted his role in the raid. On 7 December 1983 two members of the ANC were injured when their house in the suburb of Xipamanine was bombed. Albeit the outdated intelligence that they were acting on, the SADF carried an operation on 23 August 1984 targeting the ANC in the town of Namacha which was located at the confluence of Mozambique, South Africa and Swaziland. As a result of the raid two Mozambicans and a Portuguese national were killed. Three others were kidnapped and taken across the border back to Phalaborwa, in South Africa, for interrogation about ANC activities in Namacha. On 7 April 1988, Albert “ Albie” Louis Sachs survived a bomb explosion that was placed in his car near the corner of Eduardo Mondlane and Julius Nyerere Avenues in Maputo – the bomb was planted by South African security agents, but was intended for Indres Naidoo. Sachs lost an arm and the sight of one eye. In July 1989 Enoch Reginald Mhlongo, Themba Ngesi and Samuel Phinda died after they were poisoned by members of the South African Civil Cooperation Bureau (CCB), a hit squad targeting political opponents outside the country that operated under the SADF. As South Africa faced the rising tide of protests in the country, in addition to increasing pressure from the international community and military pressure from within the NP, Botha was forced to engage Mozambique. The economic dependence of Mozambique on South Africa played to the latter’ s advantage. Talks between Samora Machel, the leader of the Mozambican government FRELIMO and Botha resulted in the signing of the Nkomati Accord on 16 March 1984. In terms of the agreement, both countries resolved not to harbour hostile forces or allow their countries to be used as launching pads for attacks on one another. Mozambique agreed to expel the ANC from their country while South Africa agreed to cease its support of RENAMO, an anti-government guerrilla organisation in Mozambique. South Africa, however, breached the agreement by clandestinely continuing to support RENAMO, resulting in the collapse of the agreement. On 26 May 1988 the two countries agreed to revive the Nkomati Accord. Cross border raids by the SADF, which started in the 1970s intensified in the 1980s, targeted political activists in Mozambique and other neighbouring countries. The Truth and Reconciliation Report noted that human rights violations committed by South African security forces, their agents or surrogates was not just limited to regional states, but it also extended as far as Western Europe, in countries such as the United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Netherlands and Scandinavia. On 14 February 2011 the South African Minister of Arts and Culture, Paul Mashatile, and the Mozambican Minister of Culture Armando, Joã o Artur, signed a Memorandum of Understanding for the construction of a monument in honour of the 13 South African freedom fighters killed in the Matola raid. Names of other people killed by the apartheid armed forces in other raids in Mozambique would also be added to the monument. Not what you were looking for? Try searching again, or ask your own question 17 Our users say: Posted by: Sello | 2013/02/08 Wrong answer, the Modemolle monster was a pig. A damn pig Reply to Sello Posted by: DH | 2013/02/08 waffle waffle...Sello, your signal to noise ratio is very poor, you make a lot of noise but very little of it has any value.It''s not that you have a chip on your shoulder, you have a half brick on you shoulder, and like a true african you are just itching to throw it through a window, any window, even your own. Reply to DH Posted by: Sello | 2013/02/08 These two pigs are helbent to discredit black people at all costs. Their pig upbrining nazi style is deeply rooted in their brains. There is nothing we can do to heal them. Termite I have mentioned countries that are run black and are successful and are living in peace. Now is your opportunity to say you withdraw your statement as you promised. Or is that not a pig style to accept this kind of truth.A pig is a pig and is different from a white person. There are wonderful white people out there and both DH and Termite do not qualify as white they are pigs. You are very much aware that these criminal act are committee by criminals of all sorts. There has been gruesome cases reported in the media and they were not committed by blacks. But we really dont care about that because a criminal is a criminal no matter his/her race, colour or creed.Let me see. What colour was the man who committed this hyenas crime: A woman''s estranged husband allegedly shot dead their son who walked in on her being gang-raped and mutilated by him and his workers, Limpopo police said on Wednesday.When the couple''s 19-year-old son walked in on the crime at their Modimolle home on Tuesday, his father shot him dead." It is alleged the husband confronted his estranged wife carrying a .22 rifle at her house on Tuesday around 17:00, accompanied by his three employees," Brigadier Hangwani Mulaudzi said.The 51-year-old husband, with the help of his workers, tied the woman to a bed in her home, before her husband allegedly ordered them to rape her at gunpoint. He also allegedly tried to cut off her nipples with a grinder." While the three were raping the woman, his 19-year-old son arrived at the house and without any provocation his father shot him in the head. He died on the spot." The man fled in his white Toyota Fortuner registration number DCS 392 FS. The three workers also ran away and their whereabouts were unknown.There are many other cases and i will find them and post them heare so that everyone can see that you guys are blowing things out of proportion because you are motivated by racist politics Reply to Sello Posted by: Temite | 2013/02/08 Sello where do you hear of 2 year old babies being raped, where will you ever find a new born white baby in a dustbin or latrine pit...wo can kill a fellow human being and still sleep at night? who rapes 80 year old woman???????? I am yet to hear of a white person hijacking any race....a black can walk around a white area and you and he is left alone, try a white in black area..I need not continue...and you call us pigs...that is a bit rich coming from you Sello..a white kills a black, it is a racist attack, a black kills a white and its crime...get that chip off your shoulder... Reply to Temite Posted by: DH | 2013/02/08 Ag ou Sello, no amount of shite that you sprout can change my mind. You lot do something constructive, build something, make something, anything....then maybe would I consider respecting you lot.It is simply in your nature to be destructive, you steal electrical cable that controls train signals, trains crash and people get killed, you burn your trains and you can''t get to work, you burn your schools and your kids can''t learn, you burn your busses and the kids can''t get to school...you rape, murder, steal, you are corrupt and and and....I didn''t make you a savage, you simply never grew out of it, it is up to you to lift yourself up out of your savage nature. The question is this: can a Pitbull learn to be a decent, respectable animal of its own accord....we all know the answer to that one which is: it takes a hard man to kick its $h1t nature out of it. Reply to DH | 1 comment (hide) Posted by: Ike | 2016/02/15 Spare us the racist and moronic talk. We already know that bigots like you like to think of themselves as the 'superior man' and during apartheid we could see where this leads us to. Be happy that we still allow you to live among us. If you in fact don't like to live among Africans, then please leave Africa. Oh, I forgot: your bigot forefathers were outcasted by their fellow Europeans and there is no way for you to re-integrate into modern European society. Hahahahahaha. So, if you want us to accept you, behave boetie! Posted by: Sello | 2013/02/08 I thought as much you simply cannot read fact. Especially when fact points against pig propaganda. You will never win with your stupid pig mission. The only thing that you are capable of is to drive fear in the minds of potential pigs or pigs wannabe. You have always spread pig lies about no black country being successfull in Africa. Now I have given you those countries and that is hurtfull to you. You are an extremely jelous person. Jelous of something beyond you. African and black sucess is bigger than the story of Jesus himself. After many years of colonisation by the Europeans we are rising to the occassion of ecenomic and social development and that in the pigs eyes is hurtful. I wonder what goes through your mind when you walk through the Gautengs malls and see black middle class with the economic power to shop in places where you cannot afford. What goes through your mind when you see a young black professional driving a merc? Tell me what goes through your mind other that your pig''s thoughts? You are loosing DH and lets face it. Some in this forum has seen your character. So go on ignore what i write but at the end ..I AM BLACK AND STRONG AND I HAVE MADE MY POINT. Reply to Sello Posted by: DH | 2013/02/08 I told you before, I don''t read the shite that you write. I think that it will really great when you clowns actually accomplish something. The day that you lot do something worthwhile we will all celebrate with you, but until then you are just a bunch of savages who do nothing other than destroy everything you touch.We see the news on TV every day, we hear the news on the radio and we see with our own eyes the way you lot act. Even a 2 year old is able to see that the savage in you always gets the better of you.Sello, if you want our respect then earn it through your actions , I have no interest in your empty savage delusional words. Reply to DH Posted by: Sello | 2013/02/08 So now DH you have toned down from racist and prejudice remarks about black people. You have supprised me when you said " You are an idiot, not because you are black but becuase you believe the $h1t you speak" Once more I have triumphed. I have managed to put this pig in its place. Now I want you to go and watch Lincoln.Lets get back to business. DH and Termite ask me to mention countrys that are run by black people successfully. Well here we go. Termite be ready to retract that statement as you have promised. Here I list just a few.Number one: South Africa. The political situation is stable. The economy is growing at 4% exceeding that of most European countries. We have a multi party system and democratic elections every four years. The new era has produced more black middle class who are proffessionals and business people. More people are on social grant thus giving them an opportunuty to earn a living that has taken them out of the poverty line. The minority rights are protected and the courts are indipendant. We have a strong fiscal policy. There is a third force that is ridiculously weak and they are been disseminated quite successfully. We have challenges in certain areas of our policies that needs constant adjustments.Number two: Mozambique. Economic growth – spurred on by political stability, steady macroeconomic management, reconstruction, and structural reforms – has been bolstered by a boom in large foreign investments in the burgeoning energy and natural resources sectors. The country has become a world-class destination for mining and natural gas development the October 2012 achievement of Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI) compliant status is an important milestone in the country’ s economic development. Alongside its natural resources, Mozambique’ s long coastline positions it as a natural gateway to global markets for neighboring land-locked countries. The country has weathered the global economic and financial crises, with economic growth dipping to 6.3 percent in 2009 but rising to 7.2% in 2011 and 7.5% in 2012. Inflation has reached record low levels, at 1.2% in the 12-months ending in September 2012. Infrastructure spending as well as foreign investments in new mega-projects are expected to drive economic growth to eight percent over the medium-term. However, this impressive trajectory of growth has not been matched by a concomitant reduction in poverty and creation of jobs and livelihoods, prompting questions about the current development model and the need for greater inclusiveness and economic diversification. Following independence from Portugal in June 1975, the country underwent a 16-year armed conflict that ended in 1992. The transition to peace, political stability, and democracy culminated in the country’ s first democratic elections in 1994 and the emergence of the Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frelimo) as the dominant political force in the country, a fact that still holds true today. Looking ahead, the next two years will be marked by several political milestones. The well anticipated designation of the party’ s candidate to succeed President Guebuza who is due to step down at the end of his term in 2014 and the 2013 municipal elections that will determine whether the opposition Democratic Movement of Mozambique (MDM) can build on its control of two of the largest municipalities (Beira and Quelimane) and emerge as a serious force in Mozambican politics. Number three: Botswana.Botswana is an upper middle-income country touted as one of Africa’ s few success stories. The diamond-rich country enjoys stable economic growth, consistently ranks near the top of international anticorruption measures, and remains untouched by the political instability that has roiled so many African nations. Political and Economic StabilityBotswana, a landlocked country of 1.8 million people in southern Africa, had the highest per-capita growth rate in the world for more than three decades after its independence in 1966. The bulk of this growth was fueled by diamonds, which were discovered in the early 1970s. Unlike many resource-rich African states, Botswana implemented prudent policies to manage its resources. The government owns half of the only diamond-mining company in the country, Debswana, and has directed diamond revenues into social development. “ It wasn’ t just the minerals,” says Baledzi Gaolathe, Botswana’ s finance minister, in an interview with CFR.org. “ It was also the way in which these minerals were exploited and the way the benefits of exploiting these minerals were shared between the government and the private sector.” Bolstered by its institutional strength, Botswana ranks near the top of many indices on governance. It is thirty-eighth on the 2007 Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, the highest ranking for an African nation. The new Ibrahim Index of African Governance ranks Botswana third on the continent, higher than its southern neighbor, South Africa. And the World Bank’ s Doing Business 2008 report places Botswana fourth in sub-Saharan Africa and in the top third of countries worldwide. Number four:Angola is on the path to harnessing its vast potential to the greater benefit of its citizens. Despite occasional, minor flare-ups in regions outside Luanda and in the oil-rich enclave of Cabinda, the peace has held and is likely to continue. Unlike earlier attempts to bring peace to Angola, the peace agreement of 2002 was signed following UNITA''s clear military defeat by the MPLA. Furthermore, after 14 years of armed struggle for independence and 27 years of civil war, the Angolan people are exhausted by war and determined to move forward. In six short years, the emergency response to the immediate post-conflict situation has given way to a more comprehensive focus on the actions necessary to support sustained, longer-term development. The Government has succeeded in stabilizing the macro-economy. During the 1980s and 1990s, Angola suffered a series of hyperinflationary episodes. Annual inflation reached 3,000 percent in 1995 and spiked to 12,034 percent in July 1996. By February 2006, it was 28.5 percent and falling. Similarly, the Government stabilized the exchange rate. For virtually all of the 1990s, the exchange rate was substantially overvalued, with the parallel market premium reaching levels well above 1,000 percent at times. Since 2000, the parallel market premium has generally remained below one percent, and the Kwanza now holds its value against the dollar.Importantly, the Government has also taken several steps to increase transparency in the collection and use of revenues generated from oil reserves. A significant share of Angola''s famous " unexplained discrepancies" in its published budgets has been eliminated. In 2004, an oil-revenue diagnostic study was completed by the international consulting firm KPMG. The study was made public on the Ministry of Finance website. In addition, independent audits of Sonangol (the oil parastatal) and the Central Bank are occurring, and all government oil activity, including revenues and expenditures, is being unified into one budget at the Ministry of Finance. Another positive development is that the first legislative elections since 1992 took place on September 5, 2008, and the presidential election is likely to take place in 2009. Voter registration was initiated in 2006, and the government estimates that more than 2 million voters were registered in the first four months of the process. To date, more than 8 million voters have registered. In passing bills related to the elections, the Government took into account the perspectives of both civil society and opposition parties. There also appears to be a commitment on the part of both the MPLA and UNITA to, after national elections, institute elections at the municipal level as part of a general effort to decentralize certain government functions. The relatively inclusive process that led to new laws on land and the rights of people living with AIDS suggest further openings in political space. Reply to Sello Posted by: Termite | 2013/02/08 DH, that is probably the best response. Have to agree with DH Sello, you people have achieved nothing broken eveything. Rhodesia once the bread backet of africa, Your brother mugabe took over and look at it now..nothing but a cess pit abd 1000''s of your so called black brothers suffer.Believe it or not, most black run countries need the white man to be a success...or if you can show me a successful run black run country, I will retract that statement....that is life!!! Reply to Termite Posted by: DH | 2013/02/07 Sello - no matter how much crap you speak you speak MK will never be more than a bunch of undiciplined savages running around waving a white man''s gun.You may rewrite history in your own small little mind but we all know that the savages didn''t win anything. You are an idiot and your idialization of all those idiot terrorist twats is moronic. You frigging morons are simply incapable of doing anything for yourselves. Like sheep in a kraal, you need to be fed and you need to be looked after otherwise you will simply f*ck the entire farm up...as is your nature.Show us any country that you lot didn''t f*ck up, show us anything that you lot discovered, designed, accomplished....there is nothing, nothing at all. The best you can do is to rewite history and to rename the accomplishmenst of others and call them your own.Sello, you are an idiot who lives in a dream world filled with delusions of granduer...my friend, you want granduer, earn it instead of trying to make everybody believe your little fairy tales of greatness.You are an idiot, not because you are black but becuase you believe the $h1t you speak. Reply to DH Posted by: Sello | 2013/02/07 With the struggle for liberation come a resolute mind and there should be no weaknesses. Well done Whena. Resting your case is the best thinng you have ever done in this forum. Well done indeed. I triumph. Reply to Sello Posted by: Whena | 2013/02/07 Sello- I rest my case Reply to Whena Posted by: Sello | 2013/02/07 Boggom, peanut, bananna, boggom MK viva boggom cANCer Reply to Sello Posted by: Sello | 2013/02/07 VIVA Quattro. Here we cleansed the ANC of impimpi, askaris and SADF underground operatives - what more can I say? If Quattro did not exist and carried out its mandate, the SA history would have been different. Quattro serviced its purpose and so well it did. During the times of war, there are no roses and sweet lilly dalulu its wat time and every possible method must be used to with the wat. There was nothing wrong with Quattro. Reply to Sello | 1 comment (hide) Posted by: Ike | 2016/02/14 Would you say that the methods of "interrogation" used in Quattro were appropriate? Some suggest that they were quite similar to the brute and savage torture methods of the apartheid regime's infamous special branch. Also, what about those detainees who were suspected to be double agents based on false accusations? Did they deserve the treatment they received? Posted by: Whena | 2013/02/07 Pls tell us about Quattro? Reply to Whena Have your say Your name (optional) Your comment Security × Thanks for commenting! Your comment will appear on the site shortly. 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