Researchers have found ways to limit cancer-causing substances in your weekend braai meat.
Among the cancer-causing compounds in cooked meat are heterocyclic amines (HCAs), which are created when heat acts on amino acids, and creatinine in animal muscle.
The longer the cooking time and the higher the heat, the more HCAs, say experts at the University of California, Davis, Cancer Centre. That means that barbecuing produces the most HCAs, followed by pan-frying and broiling. Baking, poaching, stir-frying and stewing produce the least HCAs.
The UC Davis experts offer the following advice for limiting HCAs:
- Before you barbecue meat, partially cook it in the microwave and then throw out the juices that collect in the cooking dish. Finish cooking the meat on the grill. Precooking a hamburger for a few minutes in the microwave reduces HCAs by up to 95 percent.
- Flip meat often. Doing so every minute reduces HCAs by up to 100 percent. This is likely because constant flipping keeps internal meat temperatures lower.
- Marinate meat before grilling. This can greatly reduce HCAs. For example, one study found that chicken marinated for 40 minutes in a mixture of brown sugar, olive oil, cider vinegar, garlic, mustard, lemon juice and salt cut HCAs by 92 percent to 99 percent.
- Don't cook meat to "well done." Use a meat thermometer and cook poultry to an internal temperature of 165-180 degrees F (74-82 degrees C), ground beef, pork and lamb to 160-170 degrees F (71-77 degrees C), and beef steaks and roasts to 145-160 degrees F (63-71degrees C).
- One or two days before you barbecue, eat cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, kale and brussels sprouts. These vegetables contain compounds that activate enzymes in the body that detoxify HCAs.
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